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Unformatted text preview: Geog 200 Exam #3 Study Guide Chapter 6: Transportation and Spatial Interaction 1) List & describe the three principles with respect to demand for spatial interaction. Describe the basic elements and relationships between them embodied in the simple gravity model. List and describe four drawbacks of the simple gravity model.-The three principles include 1. Complementarity two places have complementarity if they have supply/demand relationships between them. One place supplies a good and the other place demands a good. (Can also think of it in terms of surpluses & deficits.) 2. Transferability Supply/demand relationships can only be realized if the cost of production (and shipment) is less than or equal to the price of consumption. High transport costs give a product low transferability. 3. Intervening opportunity flows between places are negatively affected by the presence of alternative competing origins & destinations. (Flow b/t an origin & destination may not occur even if transferability exists if another origin provides a cheaper supply or another destination pays a higher price.)-Population of origin & destination, the distance between the two places and the friction of distance in the gravity model along with all three determine the actual volume of flow. -Drawbacks of the simple gravity model: (4 on the exam) 1. Total population may not be the correct value for accessing interaction. 2. It does not account for intervening opportunities. 3. Sum of total flows from one origin to all of its destinations may be greater than total possible. 4. Assumes that distance decay is same for all destinations. 5. Interaction is more than a function of cost than distance. 6. Ability to pay also affects travel and interaction. 2) List & describe four different types of freight rate systems. Based on the structure of transport costs, explain why most short distance shipments are by truck, intermediate distance shipments by rail, and long distance shipments by boat. Illustrate with diagram.- Back-haul freight rates, freight-forwarding, hub-and-spoke transport, and freight containerization, break-in-bulk freight system. Boat is used for long distance (coast shipping) because of its low ling-haul costs. Rail incurs higher terminal charges than truck but has lower line haul costs therefore truck is more competitive over short distances and rail is more competitive over longer distances. 3) Describe the three basic pricing policies used by producers with respect to the price of a delivered product. Draw a graph for each pricing policy that illustrates how the pricing system acts with respect to distance between a customer and the producer. Why would producers use each policy and what impact does each policy have on market areas?...
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- Spring '08