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Exam 2 study guide - Geog. 200 EXAM #2 Study Guide Chapter...

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Geog. 200 EXAM #2 Study Guide Chapter 3: Global Patterns of Agricultural Land Use 1) What is an isoquant? Using an isoquant diagram, explain why low income countries have labor-intensive agricultural production and high income countries have capital-intensive agricultural production. Illustrate your answer with a properly labeled diagram. -Isoquants are lines of equal output on a graph. Each isoquant represents a trade-off curve between different input combinations of labor(L) and capital(K). The relative cost of the factors of production determines the ratio of factor input per unit of output. Poor countries have labor- intensive agricultural production functions because labor is relatively cheap in these countries. In rich countries, labor is more expensive and therefore less is use and capital-intensive agricultural production is favored instead. 2) Describe the different forms of subsistence agricultural systems. Describe the different forms of commercial agricultural systems. In what portions of the world would one most likely find the following types of agriculture: nomadism, swidden, plantation, livestock ranching, Mediterranean? - Subsistence agricultural systems have workers engaged in activities related to day-to-day survival such as hunting, gathering societies, or low surplus production where produce is consumed mainly on site. This is a shifting agriculture with two types, Nomadic herding (nomadism) with is a ranging but controlled movement of livestock and Shifting cultivation (Swidden) in which a plot of land is burned, cultivated for several years and then left to return to natural state. Commercial agricultural systems are organized on the exchange value of goods. The two basic types are the Capitalism system in which the system is driven by quest for profits through price-setting and supply and demand. The second is a Planned economy in which consumption & production are determined by government agents following a central plan in an attempt to achieve target production quotas. Nomadic herding is in dry desert-like as well as cold subarctic-like climate zones. Swidden is found primarily in tropical rainforest climates. Livestock ranching,(Western U.S., South America) meat is grown for urban markets and the livestock forage over an expansive area. Plantation (warm climates)are cash crops that are intensively farmed by outside investors. Mediterranean (Europe) agriculture is very intensive high value specialty crops with high levels of irrigation. 3) What is the greenhouse effect? Describe the difference between the natural versus the induced greenhouse effect. What are the three ways in which agriculture is linked to the greenhouse effect? -
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course GEOG 200 taught by Professor Cromley during the Spring '08 term at UConn.

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Exam 2 study guide - Geog. 200 EXAM #2 Study Guide Chapter...

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