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The Cold War 70.doc - The Cold War US History/Napp Name: _...

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The Cold WarUS History/NappName: __________________Do Now:The Cold War, 1945 – 1991:Rivalrybetween theU.S.A. and the Soviet UnionIdeological differences; capitalism vs. communism/dictatorship vs. democracyWhy Americans Feared Communism:Karl Marx, the founder of Communism, believed that the history of the world was ahistory of class struggle and that the final stage of history was the struggle betweenthe bourgeoisie(capitalists) and proletariats(workers); Soviet Union was the firstcommunist nation – established in 1917Marx believed in the abolition of private propertyMarx believed in economic equalityMarx believed in a dictatorship of the proletariat until dictatorship withered awayMarx believed that religion was the opiate of the massesThe Yalta and Potsdam Conferences:Yalta Conference (February 1945)Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin agreed onformation of United Nationsand the division of Germanyinto separate occupationzones; they agreed on free elections in countries liberated from German rulePotsdam Conference (summer of 1945)When Truman met with Stalin, seriousdifferences emerged over Eastern EuropeStalin refused to allow elections inPoland and the U.S.A. refused to share the secrets behind atomic bomb; Sovietsplaced Communists in power in all the governments of Eastern EuropeAn IronCurtainfell over Eastern EuropeSoviet satellitesContainment:U.S.A. policy to stop the spread of communismTruman Doctrine:In 1947, when Communist rebels threatened the governments of Greece and Turkey,President Truman gave these countries military aidMarked the beginning of America’s containment policyMarshall Plan, 1948:Massive aid given to the countries of war-torn Europe to rebuild their economies,avoid the chaos that followed World War I, and stop the spread of communismDivision of Germany and Berlin Airlift, 1948:In 1948, the French, British, and Americans decided to merge their German zonesBerlin, the old capital of Germany, was in the Soviet zoneThe Soviets reacted to the merging of the Western zones by closing all highway andrailroad links to West Berlin

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