Management Final Study Guide - Early management 3000-2500...

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Early management 3000-2500 b.c o The Egyptian pyramids 100,000 workers 20 years 1400s Venetian arsenal Warships floated the canals picking up supplies Accounting/inventory The revolution (1800s) Paradigm shift Steam power and machienery became common Skilled craftsmen in small shops replaced Factories sprung up with semi skilled and unskilled workers Owners/managers of these new factories were totally unprepared For the first time people were working in large groups They began to search for new managerial techniques Classical approaches Frederick taylor – scientific management o An American mechanical engineer who sought to reduce factory management to a science o The systematic study of relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency o Beliefs Production more efficient using division of labor and specialization Intuition or rules of thumb were not as good as scientific management Used time motion studies Peaked in 1910’s Scientific management pros/cons Four principles Study and experiment to improve the way tasks are performed Codify the new methods into standard operating procedures Select workers with skills that match the tasks Higher rewards for performance above the acceptable levels Pros Huge cost savings Huge increases in output Cons Managers implemented in selectively Bonuses reaped by managers but not passed on to workers Worker task levels increased to avoid paying bonuses
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Increased performance meant less jobs Monotony Human side not accounted for Bureaucratic control systems Bureaucracy (German professor Max Weber; early 1900s) o Formal system designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness o Specific rules, standards and hierarchical authority Focus on organizational management efficiency instead of person task efficiency Employess abide by established rules, policies and standards o Standard operating procedures Focus is on the roles rather than the individual Responsibilities and duties linked to jobs and roles The good and bad of bureaucracy Rules and regulations are more often than not robust and effective They can promote better performance Safety But these control systems can Inhibit innovation and honest communication Suspend good judgment in favor of following the rules Lead to repressive work environment Slow down decision making Mary parker follet Late 1800s early 1900s Concerned that the human side was being ignored The best people to solve problems are those closest to them Power with rather than power over people Managers should be coaches rather than dictators Cross functional teams Horizontal versus vertical structure Ahead of her time Mayo and the hawthorne studies Hawthorne studies 1924-1932 (by Harvard psychologist Elton Mayo) o
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