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Exam 2 Cumulative Study Guide

Exam 2 Cumulative Study Guide - 1 Chapter Subject Pages in...

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1 Chapter / Subject Pages in Textbook Pages in Outline Chapter 5: Lipids 132-171 1-8 Chapter 6: Protein 172-203 8-15 Chapter 7: Metabolism 204-239 16-21 Vitamins Overview 311-314 21-22 Minerals Overview 393-394 & 423-425 22 Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin 315-322 23-24 Vitamin B 6 323-325 24-25 The B Vitamins – In Concert 334-337 25 Iodine 438-439 26 Chromium 443-444 26 Chapter 5: Lipids I. Chemist’s view of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides a. Lipids composed of Carbon (C) , Hydrogen (H), and Oxygen (O) i. Have many more carbons than hydrogen in proportion to oxygen 1. Thus can supply more energy per gram than carbohydrates b. Every triglyceride contains 1 molecule GLYCEROL and 3 Fatty Acids c. Fatty Acids 4-24 (Even Numbers) carbon long i. 18 Carbon is most common in foods d. Fatty acids may be saturated or unsaturated i. Unsaturated = more than 1 points of unsaturation (mono or poly unsaturated) e. Polyunsaturated fatty acids first point of unsaturation next to third carbon (omega-3) or sixth carbon (omega-6) f. 18-carbon fatty acids = linolenic acid(omega-3) and linoleic acid (omega-6) i. Help regulate blood pressure, blood clotting g. Fatty Acids- organic acid – chain of carbon atoms /w hydrogen attached, have acid group (COOH) at 1 end of methyl group (CH3) at other end i. Acetic acid shorted chain (only 2 carbons long) ii. The Length of the Carbon Chain 1. Most naturally occurring fatty acids = 24 carbons in length 2. Stearic acid = simplest of 18-carbon fatty acids 3. Long chain (12-24) carbon fatty acids most common in diet 4. Medium chain (6-10) and short-chain (>6) occur primarily in dairy products iii. The Degree of Unsaturation 1. Saturated fatty acid-fatty acid carrying max possible # hydrogen atoms a. Contains only single bonds between carbon atoms b. 2 of the carbons have only 3 bonds each, each carbon must have 4 bonds. (2 carbons then form a double bond) i. Double bond is a point of unsaturation 1. Point of unsaturation- double bond of fatty acid, where hydrogen atoms can easily be added to the structure ii. 2 hydrogen missing & double bond – unsaturated fatty acid iii. Polyunsaturated fatty acid- have 2 or more carbon-to-carbon double bonds iv. Linolenic acid has 3 double bonds iv. Omega-3 and Omega-6 Fatty Acids Compared 1. Omega # indicated position of first double bond counting from methyl (CH3) side 2. First double bond occurs @ same point in all v. The Location of Double Bonds
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2 1. Identify polyunsaturated fatty acids by position of double bond near methyl (CH3) end (Described as an Omega #) 2. Monosaturated fatty acids tend to belong to omega-9 group a. First (and only) double bond 9 carbons away h. Triglycerides i. Few fatty acids occur free in foods, most often incorporated into triglycerides 1. Triglycerides- lipids composed of 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol a. To make: condensation reaction combine (H) from glycerol & hydroxyl (OH) group from fatty acid water (H2O) & leave bond between 2 molecules i. Degree of Unsaturation Revisited i. Firmness 1. Degree of unsaturation influences the firmness of fats @ room temperature.
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