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HNF Review Guide - Exam 1

HNF Review Guide - Exam 1 - HNF Review Guide Exam 1...

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HNF Review Guide – Exam 1 Introduction  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Wellness:  Physical, emotional, and spiritual health; dependent on nutrition and physical  activity Goals of  Healthy People 2010 1. Increase quality and years of healthy life 2. Eliminate health disparities Nutrients:  Chemicals in foods that our bodies use for energy and tissue growth,  maintenance, repair Macronutrients:  Required in large amounts; provide energy; Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins Micronutrients:  Required in smaller amounts; Vitamins and minerals Energy is measured in  kilocalories:  amount of energy needed to raise the temp of 1kg of  water by 1˚C Organic Nutrients:  Contain element of carbon (Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, vitamins) Inorganic:  Do not contain carbon (Minerals, water) Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)  set nutritional standards for  healthy  people to prevent  diseases Estimated Average Requirement (EAR):  Average daily intake of a nutrient that meets the  need of half of the  healthy  people in a particular category; used to determine the RDA of a  nutrient Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA):  Average daily of a nutrient that meets the need  of 97 – 98% of  healthy  people in a particular category Adequate Intake (AI):  Recommended average daily intake level for a nutrient for  healthy  people; used when the RDA is not established (calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K, fluoride) Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL):  Highest average daily intake level likely to pose no  health risk
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Estimated Energy Requirement (EER):  Average dietary intake (kcal) to maintain energy  balance; based on age, gender, weight, height, level of physical activity, etc. Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR):  Sets the portion of the energy  intake that should come from each macronutrient Carbohydrates:  45 – 65% Lipids:  20 – 35% Protein:  10 – 35% Primary Deficiency:  Person does not consume enough of a nutrient Secondary Deficiency:  Person cannot absorb enough, too much is excreted, not used  correctly Subclinical Deficiency:  Early stages, few/no symptoms observed Covert:  Symptoms are hidden and require tests to detect Overt:  Symptoms are obvious Diet Assessment  --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Diet History:  Information from interview of questionnaire; Very comprehensive on lifestyle +  diet 24 Hour Recall:  Cheating is easy, relies on memory, uses a lot of estimation Food Frequency Questionnaire:  List of foods with number of times eaten; mostly qualitative 
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