cell structures expanded outline_1

cell structures expanded outline_1 - Chapter 6: A tour of...

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I. Cell theory A. First views of cells B. Advanced studies of cells and tools used to study them II. Cell types and size limitations A. Eukaryotes vs. Prokaryotes B. Size limitations III. Cell organelles A. Nucleus (Fig. 6.10) B. Ribosomes 1. site of protein synthesis 2. structure: small organelle with 2 subunits—large and small subunits (these are each composed of rRNA and proteins. The large and small subunits are synthesized in the nucleolus 3. types of ribosomes: free and bound Free ribosomes are suspended in the cytosol (cytoplasm) Proteins made at the free ribosomes usually function within the cell (for example, enzymes that catalyze the conversion of glucose into ATP are made at the free ribosomes). Bound ribosomes are attached to the outer-side of sac-like organelles called Rough endoplasmic reticulum. Bound ribosomes make proteins that are destined to be shipped out of the cell (e.g., insulin), become part of the membranes, and are sometimes put into vesicles). Each liver cell has more than 13,000,000 ribosomes! C. Endoplasmic reticulum (Fig. 6.12) 1. structure Part of the endomembrane system: system of internal membranes in eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structural components (organelles). The endomembrane system includes: Nuclear envelope, E.R., Golgi, lysosomes, and vacuoles. Structure of ER: network of tubules running through the cytosol (flattened sacs with internal space called the lumen). 2. types of ER: smooth ER and rough ER Smooth ER (SER): ER without any ribosomes attached SER Functions: 1) synthesis of fatty acids, phospholipids, steroids; 2) detoxification of drugs/poisons. How? Enzymes in SER add –OH groups to
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIO 120 taught by Professor Throgerson during the Winter '08 term at Grand Valley State.

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cell structures expanded outline_1 - Chapter 6: A tour of...

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