214 Ch2 Slide outline

214 Ch2 Slide outline - 214 Ch2 Slide outline 1 Ch 2...

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214 Ch2 Slide outline 1. Ch 2 Chemical components of cells 2. Types of chemical bonds Ionic Covalent Nonpolar (electrons shared equally between bonding “partners”) Polar (electrons UNEQUALLY shared between bonding “partners”) Hydrogen Most of chemistry in cells is hydrogenated? Van derWaals Attraction between two atoms that have to do with their distance (very close) No electrical attraction Two masses with close proximity 3. Covalent and Ionic bonds, Figure 2-6. - Biologists are simple chemists * Atom has nucleus and surrounding electrons - Mainly concerned with valence shell - Ionic bond – electrostatic attraction bt two atoms * One atom contains a whole negative charge… this is attracted to an ion with a definite positive charge * ex. NaCl (Na +, Cl -) * Basis of bond is an electric attraction * Involves movement of electron from one element to the other - Covalent Bond * Two atoms share electrons *** Overall tendency to fill the out electron shell (Octet Rule) - Biologist refer to ionic bonds as the transfer of electrons - “ “ sharing of electrons 4. Types of covalent bonds, Figure 2.11 & 2.12 - Two kinds of covalent bonds - NPCov Ethane * Equal sharing of electrons within the bond of two atoms - Polar Cov Bond Ex. Water * Oxy (pulls electrons closer) bonded to 2 Hyd atoms * Unequal sharing of electrons * Partial positive charge of H atoms (noted with delta symbol) * Partial negative charge of O atom ~probability of finding electrons near nucleus is greater
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* Positive dipole - Has a biological significance ???? * 5. Hydrogen bonds: from panel 2-2 - H bonded to highly electronegative atom - Occur when partial charges exist - Nonrandom organization - Small attraction bt partial pos and neg of two molecules - CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF WATER !!! (Research/Understand) - Aqueous solutions? - Oxygen surrounding Na in salt water - Hydrophilic (water loving) molecules (solutes) in water * Can be dissolved in water - Hydration Spheres ? - Cl and H bonds are disrupted ?
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIO 214 taught by Professor Stockton during the Spring '06 term at James Madison University.

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214 Ch2 Slide outline - 214 Ch2 Slide outline 1 Ch 2...

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