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ANTH - First Test

ANTH - First Test - ANTH 1001 Principle Figures in the...

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ANTH 1001 Principle Figures in the History of Evolutionary Thought Karl vonLinne (1707-1778) o Swedish botanist o Devised the system of organism classification o pseudo-Latinized organisms (even own name – Carolus Linnaeus) o Principle of Fixity of Species All species were created by God, and each species was fixed in its characteristics and was unchangeable Regarded variation within a species inconsequential Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829) o One of the first people to propose that species do change over time (there is evolution of species) o He was an invertebrate zoologist o Theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (Theory of Use and Disuse) Four components/tenets to theory All organisms have needs in order to survive (food, avoid predators and other conditions) Met by modification of organs/tissue or the establishment of new organs to satisfy these needs The continued use of these organs leads to increase in organisms complexity and functional capacity, disuse of it would led to its degeneration and loss Changes in the organs that occur within ones lifetime become inheritable and can be passed on to offspring George Cuvier (1769-1832) o Contemporary of Lamarck o The renowned comparative anatomist of his day o Disagreed with Lamarck that changes within ones lifetime would be anything but disadvantageous o Theory of Catastrophism In the past, there were a series of sudden violent cataclysmic events that caused the extinction of animals in the affected areas After the events subsided, the area was relatively depopulated. Animals from nearby areas migrated in and repopulated (these animals were similar to the extinct ones, but not identical) Able to demonstrate that any one species does not change over time, they are fixed by God by certain events. The immigrant animals that repopulated the area satisfied the evidence of a series of similar looking animals across time Charles Lyell (1797-1875) o Impressed that sun, wind, rain could change physical geography by slow, progressive cumulative events o Rejected Cuvier’s Theory of Catastrophism o Theory of Uniformitarianism Forces existing today toe shape the earth are the same that were present in the past (ex. the formation of a mountain or the change in the direction of flow of a river) Should not rely on explaining past events by forces that we do not see today (must explain the past by what we see today) Greatly expanded the theory on the age of the earth (had to have been millions of years old for the earth to be made into the shape it is gradually Important to Darwin’s theory of Evolution Thomas Malthus (1766- 1834) o Cleric who published important essay called “Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798) o Argued that over time, human population size has the potential to increase exponentially, however the food supply can not increase this way and will serve as population control (starvation, war over food, etc) o This was important for Darwin’s research on evolution
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