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midterm1

# midterm1 - Descriptive Statistics the area of statistics...

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Descriptive Statistics: the area of statistics concerned with organizing and summarizing the inevitable variability in collections of actual observation or score. Inferential Statistics: the area of statistics that provides tools for generalizing beyond collections of actual observations. Random Sampling: a procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has equal chance of being selected in a survey Random Assignment: a procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment. Falsifiability: criterion of demarcation that distinguishes science from opinions and beliefs. External Validity: the extent to which a sample accurately reflects the population. Internal Validity: the integrity of a study; do the results mean what we think they mean? 3 Types of Data: Qualitative: a set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical code that represents a class or category. Ranked: a set of observations where any single observation is a # that indicates relative standing. Quantitative: a set of observations where any single observation is a # that represents an amount or count. 4 Levels of Measurement: Nominal – classification (Qualitative); Ordinal – order (Ranked); Interval – equal intervals (Quantitative); Ratio – true zero (Quantitative) 2 Types of Quantitative Variables: Discrete – a variable that consists of isolated # separated by gaps;

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