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Descriptive Statistics: the area of statistics concerned with organizing and summarizing the inevitable
variability in collections of actual observation or score.
Inferential Statistics: the area of statistics that provides tools for generalizing beyond collections of actual
observations.
Random Sampling: a procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has equal
chance of being selected in a survey
Random Assignment: a procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to
any group in an experiment.
Falsifiability: criterion of demarcation that distinguishes science from opinions and beliefs.
External Validity: the extent to which a sample accurately reflects the population.
Internal Validity: the integrity of a study; do the results mean what we think they mean?
3 Types of Data: Qualitative: a set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical
code that represents a class or category.
Ranked: a set of observations where any single observation is a # that
indicates relative standing.
Quantitative: a set of observations where any single observation is a # that
represents an amount or count.
4 Levels of Measurement: Nominal – classification (Qualitative); Ordinal – order (Ranked); Interval – equal
intervals (Quantitative); Ratio – true zero (Quantitative)
2 Types of Quantitative Variables: Discrete – a variable that consists of isolated # separated by gaps;
Continuous – a variable that consists of # whose values have no
restrictions.
Guidelines for F.D:
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This note was uploaded on 04/13/2008 for the course PSYC 60 taught by Professor Ard during the Winter '08 term at UCSD.
 Winter '08
 Ard

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