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geo coservation Chapter6

geo coservation Chapter6 - CHAPTER 6 ENVIRONMENTAL...

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CHAPTER 6 ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION BIOLOGY 104 SPRING 2008
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CASE STUDY 6—GOUALOUGO Northern republic of Congo Holds ¼ worlds tropical forests Home to many important African wildlife Elephants, gorillas, chimps, bongo, buffalo, leopards, 6 sp. sm. antelope, 8 sp. monkeys
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GOUALOUGO, CONGO Region has densest assemblage of wildlife and richest collection of primates Area shows no signs of human intrusion Bordered by 2 rivers and dense flooded forests In natural pristine state Usually animals avoid humans (experience), here they show curiosity and follow
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GOUALOUGO, CONGO All land in N. Congo divided into logging concessions Area cut in 2 by loggers with ½ zoned for cutting Gov’t upgraded to national Park in 1993 2002 Gov’t, logging co. and wildlife conservationists added 26,000 ha to park
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GOUALOUGO, CONGO This was the first recorded instance of a logging company giving up rights Lost over $10 mil. Land use policies central to environmental quality In order to preserve gov’t, corp., citizen organ., & ind. must work together
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WORLD FOREST & GRASSLANDS Almost 60% of global land cover Provides essential resources Lumber, paper, pulp, grazing lands Ecologically important Regulates climate, controls water runoff, wildlife habitat, purifies air & water Heavily disturbed
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WORLD ECOSYSTEMS Boreal & Tropical Forests Most abundant Widely distributed Most remain in humid tropics and taiga
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FORESTS Anywhere trees cover more then 10% of land Close canopy forests—tree crowns cover majority of ground Largest—Amazon Highest loss—West Africa and S. Amer.
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FORESTS (Cont.) Huge carbon sink ≈ 422 billion tons of biomass Reduction of forests releases excess carbon and reduces precipitation High biodiversity Lg # of endangered sp. Few indigenous humans
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FORESTS (Cont.) Old growth forests— undisturbed, trees live out natural lives 25% of remaining forests have old growth Russia, Canada, Brazil, Indonesia & Papau, New Guinea which have 75% of old growth Remoteness protects
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FORESTS (Cont.) Products from forests include fuel, paper and lumber Total annual wood consumption –4 bill m 3 accountinf for $100 bill/yr Developed countries produce < 50% and consume > 80%
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FORESTS (Cont.) Paper pulp—20% wood consumption Fuel wood—50% 25% worlds forests are managed for production called monoculture forestry Plantation of single sp for a single use with intense cropping
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DEFORESTATION 100 ya 12.5 mil km 3 of tropical forests Now 9.2 mill ha .06% cleared yearly 3 mill ha in Amazon basin alone
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DEFORESTATION What is deforestation— different def’n abound Scientists—complete change from forest to agriculture, urban area or desert Others—any area being logged Means estimates vary from 5- 20 mill ha/yr lost Most widely accepted rate is 12.5 mill ha with lgst amount from Brazil
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DEFORESTATION Conversion of forest to agriculture accounts for 2/3 lost in Africa
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