Ch 6 - Electron Configurations and Periodicity Chapter 6...

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Unformatted text preview: Electron Configurations and Periodicity Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Core vs. Valence Electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s13d5 or [Ar]4s13d5 Core Electrons Valence Electrons Chapter 6 Main Group Elements 08_09 6271 s subshell fills IA 1 1 H 1s1 Atomic number Symbol Valenceshell configuration Main Group Elements p subshell fills VIIIA 2 1 2 3 H 1s1 3 IIA 4 Li 2s1 11 Be 2s2 12 Transition Metals d subshells fills VIIIB IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 5 6 7 8 9 He 1s2 10 B 13 C 14 N 15 O 16 F 17 Ne 18 2s22p1 2s22p2 2s22p3 2s22p4 2s22p5 2s22p6 Na 3s1 19 Mg 3s2 20 IB 29 IIB 30 Al 31 Si 32 P 33 S 34 Cl 35 Ar 36 3s23p1 3s23p2 3s23p3 3s23p4 3s23p5 3s23p6 Period 4 5 6 K 4s1 37 Ca 4s2 38 Sc 39 Ti 40 V 41 Cr 42 Mn 43 Fe 44 Co 45 Ni 46 Cu 47 Zn 48 Ga 49 Ge 50 As 51 Se 52 Br 53 Kr 54 3d14s2 3d24s2 3d34s2 3d54s1 3d54s2 3d64s2 3d74s2 3d84s2 3d104s1 3d104s2 4s24p1 4s24p2 4s24p3 4s24p4 4s24p5 4s24p6 Rb 5s1 55 Sr 5s2 56 Y 57 Zr 72 Nb 73 Mo 74 Tc 75 Ru 76 Rh 77 Pd 4d10 78 Ag 79 Cd 80 In 81 Sn 82 Sb 83 Te 84 I 85 Xe 86 4d15s2 4d25s2 4d45s1 4d55s1 4d55s2 4d75s1 4d85s1 4d105s2 4d105s2 5s25p1 5s25p2 5s25p3 5s25p4 5s25p5 5s25p6 Cs 6s1 87 Ba 6s2 88 La* 89 Hf 104 Ta 105 W 106 Re 107 Os 108 Ir 109 Pt 110 Au 111 Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 5d16s2 5d26s2 5d36s2 5d46s2 5d56s2 5d66s2 5d76s2 5d96s1 5d106s1 5d106s2 6s26p1 6s26p2 6s26p3 6s26p4 6s26p5 6s26p6 7 Fr 7s1 Ra 7s2 Ac** Rf Ha Sg Ns Hs Mt 6d17s2 6d27s2 6d37s2 6d47s2 6d57s2 6d67s2 6d77s2 6d87s2 6d97s2 Inner Transition Metals f subshell fills 66 67 68 69 70 71 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 *Lanthanides **Actinides Ce 4f15d16s2 90 Pr 4f36s2 91 Nd 4f46s2 92 Pm 4f56s2 93 Sm 4f66s2 94 Eu 4f76s2 95 Gd 4f75d16s2 96 Tb 4f96s2 97 Dy 98 Ho 99 Er 100 Tm 101 Yb 102 Lu 103 4f106s2 4f116s2 4f126s2 4f136s2 4f146s2 4f145d16s2 Th 6d27s2 Pa 5f26d17s2 U 5f36d17s2 Np 5f46d17s2 Pu 5f67s2 Am 5f77s2 Cm 5f76d17s2 Bk 5f97s2 Cf 5f107s2 Es 5f117s2 Fm 5f127s2 Md 5f137s2 No 5f147s2 Lr 5f146d17s2 Chapter 6 Maingroup elements Transition metals Innertransition metals Periodic Variations in The Properties of Atoms Chapter 6 Periodic Properties Which characteristics will we look at? Physical properties (color, state, melting point) Atomic radius Ionization energy Electron affinity Electronegativity What will we find? There are trends in these properties that we can predict based on the electron configurations of atoms. Chapter 6 Group 1a, Alkali Metals Largest atomic radii React violently with water to form H2 Readily ionized to +1 Metallic character oxidized in air R2O Chapter 6 2a, Alkali Earth Metals Readily ionized to +2 React with water to form H2 Closed s shell configuration Metallic Chapter 6 Transition Metals Many oxidation states Metallic Reactive with acids Chapter 6 Group 3a Metals (except for Boron) Several oxidation states (+1, +2, +3) Chapter 6 Group 4a Form the most covalent compounds Can form anions (-) or cations (+) Chapter 6 Group 5a Form anions (-1, -2, -3) Form metals, metalloids, and non-metals Chapter 6 Group 6a Form -2 anions React vigorously with alkali and alkali earth metals Non-metals Chapter 6 Halogens Form monoanions High electronegativity (electron affinity) Diatomic gases Most reactive non-metals (F) Chapter 6 Noble Gases Minimal reactivity Monotomic gases Closed SHELL Chapter 6 Atoms Want to Form a Filled Valence Shell S2- = [Ne]3s23p4 + 2 electrons = [Ne]3s23p6 This is equivalent to Ar Sr2+ = [Kr]5s2 - 2 electrons = [Kr] Al3+ = [Ne]3s23p1 - 3 electrons = [Ne] N5+ = [He]2s22p3 - 5 electrons = [He] N3- = [He]2s22p3 + 3 electrons = [Ne] Chapter 6 Trends in Atomic Radii Chapter 6 Relative Atomic Radii Across any row in the Periodic Table Core electrons stay the same Nuclear charge increases Shielding decreases Within a period, atomic radii tends to decrease moving left to right Chapter 6 Ionization Energy "The energy necessary to remove electrons from an atom." Al - eAl+ - eAl2+ - eAl+ First Ionization Energy Al2+ Second Ionization Energy Al3+ Third Ionization Energy Chapter 6 08_17 Trends in Ionization Energy Pe riod 1 2500 He Ne 2000 Ionization energy (kJ/mol) F Ar 1500 H 1000 Be B 500 Li Al Na K Ca Ga N O C Cl P S Mg Si Kr Br As Se Ga Sr Rb Te Sb Sn In Ba Cs I Pb Bi Tl Ra Po Xe Rn 2 Pe riod 10 18 36 54 Atomic number Pe riod 6 3 4 2 Pe riod Pe riod Pe riod 5 86 Chapter 6 Successive Ionization Energies Ionization Energies in kJ/mol 1 H He Li Be B C N O F Ne Na Mg Chapter 6 2 5250 7297 1757 2426 2352 2855 3388 3375 3963 4563 1450 3 4 5 6 7 8 1312 2372 520 899 800 1086 1402 1314 1680 2080 496 737 11810 14845 3659 4619 4576 5296 6045 6130 6913 7731 21000 25020 6221 7473 7467 8408 9361 9541 10545 32820 37820 9442 10987 11020 12180 13350 13627 47260 53250 13320 15160 15240 16600 17995 20113 21700 25666 25662 64340 71320 17860 84070 92010 Relative Ionization Energies As we go down a group on the periodic table, ionization energy: decreases We are adding electrons to higher and higher n levels Electrons are shielded by electrons closer to the nucleus As we go across a row on the periodic table, ionization energy tends to: increase We are adding electrons to the same n level Additional protons attract electrons more effectively Chapter 6 Ionization Energy and Atomic Radii Summary Chapter 6 Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Chapter 6 Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Ex: EA of O Chapter 6 Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Ex: EA of O O + eO- Chapter 6 Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Ex: EA of O O + ekJ/mol OH = -141 Chapter 6 Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Ex: EA of O O + ekJ/mol Ex: EA of F? F + eChapter 6 O- H = -141 F- Electron Affinity "The change in energy associated with attaching an electron to an atom or ion." Commonly highly exothermic for reactive non-metals Ex: EA of O O + ekJ/mol Ex: EA of F? F + eChapter 6 O- H = -141 F- H = -328 kJ/mol Effective Nuclear Charge Electron repulsions can be thought of as reducing the "effective nuclear charge" Zeff = Zactual - effect of electron repulsion Chapter 6 Ion Sizes Cations shrink Ba Ba+ Ba2+ Anions increase Cl Cl- Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the highest Ionization Energy? Si, P, S, As Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the highest Ionization Energy? Si, P, S, As Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the most exothermic EA? Cl, Br, I Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the most exothermic EA? Cl, Br, I Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the smallest Ionization Energy? Sr-, Sr, Sr+ Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the smallest Ionization Energy? Sr-, Sr, Sr+ Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the largest atomic radius? Sb-, Te, I+ Chapter 6 Periodicity and Electron Configurations Which of the following has the largest atomic radius? Sb-, Te, I+ Chapter 6 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2008 for the course CHEM 111 taught by Professor Branstater during the Fall '08 term at La Sierra.

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