BIO REVIEW, PART THREE

BIO REVIEW, PART THREE - Biology Exam Three Review...

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Biology: Exam Three Review Checklist Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration – Harvesting Chemical Energy Catabolic pathways Metabolic pathways that release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules Release stored energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler products Yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels Aerobic Containing oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that requires  oxygen Requires oxygen glycolysis the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant  along with the organic fuel Anaerobic Lacking oxygen; referring to an organism, environment, or cellular process that lacks oxygen and  may be poisoned by it Does not require oxygen glycolysis fermentation a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen C 6 H 12 O + 6 O 2    6 CO + 6 H 2 O + Energy The equation for the degradation of glucose, the fuel that cells most often use
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The breakdown of glucose is exergonic, having a free energy charge of -686 kcal per mole of  glucose decomposed Aerobic energy harvesting, exergonic Redox reactions A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another also called oxidation-reduction reaction Oxidation – the loss of electrons from one substance (reducing agent) Reduction – the addition of electrons to another substance (oxidizing agent) Oxidation and reduction always go together Some redox reactions do not completely exchange electrons Change the degree of electron sharing in covalent bonds Stepwise energy harvesting:  If energy is released from a fuel all at once, it cannot be harnessed efficiently for constructive  work.   Cellular respiration does not oxidize glucose in a singular explosive step.  Rather, glucose and  other organic fuels are broken down in a series of steps, each one catalyzed by an enzyme.   Break down glucose and release energy in a series of steps NAD + Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide; a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer  electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism As an electron acceptor, NAD +  functions as an oxidizing agent during respiration. NAD +  is the most versatile electron acceptor in cellular respiration and functions in several of the  redox steps during the breakdown of sugar.   Electron acceptor (oxidizing agent)
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High-energy electron carrier molecule ETC A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the  redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP The transport chains consists of a number of molecules, mostly proteins, built into the inner 
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BIO REVIEW, PART THREE - Biology Exam Three Review...

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