Capsules as a dosage form Specific Objectives 1.Define capsules 2.List the various types of gelatin 3.Describe sources of gelatin 4. Classify capsules on the type of gelatin 5.Describe the manufacture of capsule shells 6.Describe the filling of capsules shells 7.Describe the manufacture of sustained release capsules 1. Hard gelatin capsules 2. Soft gelatin capsules Hard gelatin capsules are used for filling solid materials whereas soft gelatin capsules are used for filling liquids and semi-solids. Capsules usually require less excipients and additives. It is easier to get a more 1
potent dosage form without having to use a large size capsule. A hard Capsule shell consists of the cap and the body Hard gelatin capsules Empty capsule shells are made from a mixture of the following: Gelatin (main component) Acacia Sugar Opaque agents e.g. inclusion of Titanium dioxide Plasticizers Preservatives Colours (dyes) Water The shell comprises two sections, the body (longer narrower portion) and the cap (Shorter wider portion), both being cylindrical in shape and open at one end. Powders, granules and pellets can be placed in the body and the capsule closed by bringing the body and the cap together. Advantages They are elegant and attractive in appearance They are tasteless, odourless and easily swallowed with a drink of water. Drugs that have unpleasant taste or odour are enclosed in a tasteless shell and therefore useful for masking unpleasant tastes. Improved patient compliance and faster safe and effective medication use. They are easy to handle and conveniently be carried, readily identified and easily taken unlike liquid medications They can be economically produced in large numbers. There is rapid therapeutic effect of the drug once the shell disintegrates. Used to hold powders or oils for inhalation May be used for rectal and vaginal administration of drugs. They are available in variety of dosage strengths, providing flexibility to the prescriber and accurate individualized dosage form to the patient. Less costly to transport unlike their corresponding liquid medications. More stable and have a longer shelf-life than their liquid counterparts Disadvantages Deliquescent / hygroscopic materials will dry the capsules leading to excessive brittleness. This dehydration may be retarded or prevented by use of small amounts of inert oils in powder mixtures.
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- Spring '16
- Gelatin, hard gelatin capsules, h. Manufacture of