Exam Review - Psychology Exam Review Ch. 1-7, 10, 12-15...

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Psychology Exam Review   Ch. 1-7, 10, 12-15 Chapter 1 Introduction to Psychology Psychology —the scientific study of behavior and mind. Types of Psychologists 1. Clinical —specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems 2. Applied —extend the principles of scientific psychology to practical problems  in the world. **Psychiatrists—medical doctors that diagnose with medicine** 3. Research —try to discover the basic principles of behavior and mind Eclectic approach —the mixture of multiple sources and different schools of thought  versus sticking to one school no matter what. Cognitive Factors —shift away from behaviorism, back to interest in internal mental  processes; better research techniques allowed more objective observation of mental  processes; computers have a new way to understand how the mind works. Biological Factors —new emphasis on linking brain, mind, and behavior; modern  technology allows us to: record the activity of brain cells in response to stimuli in the  Evolutionary Psychology —we’re born with mental software that guides our thinking  and behavior; new emphasis on applying Darwin’s ideas of natural selection to behavior  and the mind; (ex. Humans may have evolved to: learn language, choose certain kinds of  mates, and behave a certain way in social groups.  Many claims are controversial. Cultural Factors —new emphasis on how culture shapes the mind and behavior; culture:  shared values, customs, beliefs of a group, can be based on ethnicity, race, class, religion,  or other factors that define a group; influential researcher: Vygotsky- how children think  depends on social, cultural environment around them. Chapter 2 The Tools of Psychological Research 5/12/09
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Reactivity —when behavior changes as a result of the observation process. External Validity —the extent to which results generalize to other situations or are  representative of real life. Observation of Behavior 1. Naturalistic observation —a descriptive research technique that records  naturally occurring behavior as opposed to behavior produced in the  laboratory. 2. Case Studies —a descriptive research technique in which the effort is focused  on a single case, usually an individual. 3.
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Exam Review - Psychology Exam Review Ch. 1-7, 10, 12-15...

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