Midterm Review Sheet

Midterm Review Sheet - Philosophy of Human Nature(PHRU...

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Philosophy of Human Nature (PHRU 1000-10) Spring 2006 Midterm Review Sheet Prof. Peters The MIDTERM will be given Friday, March 3 rd , 2006 at 9:30 a.m. The questions will include short answer and short to long essay questions. The following is a list of topics covered this semester for which you are responsible. These topics are drawn from class lectures, discussions, and readings. If, after your studying, you have any questions, do not hesitate to make an appointment to see me. [[email protected], x3288, Office Hours : M/W 2-3:30pm] Arguments & Falzon What makes an argument sound and valid? The difference b/wn deductive & inductive arguments? Sound argument – has true premises. (All 4-legged creatures have wings. All spiders have 4 legs. So, all spiders have wings) Valid argument – follows the rules of logic. (If P then Q) Deductive argument – conclusion follows necessarily Inductive argument – generalizing from something like experiences. Falzon’s description of critical thinking and the fallacy of closed thinking Critical thinking – One stands back from their views and beliefs and evaluates them to determine their validity and accuracy. Closed thinking – everything we encounter seems to confirm our beliefs, and nothing can be put forward to call them into question. Other fallacies : Vagueness, Ambiguity, ad hominem , Appeal to anger/pity, non sequitur , false dichotomy and the fallacy of the irrefutable hypothesis (with an example) Vagueness – term or claim whose meaning is not precisely determined. Ambiguity – words that have more than one meaning. Ad hominem – attacks person not argumental support. Appeal to anger/pity – attempts to persuade someone not through reason but by arousing emotions in support of a position. (opposer is guilty) Non sequitur – argument gets re-routed, conclusion doesn’t match original argument. Irrelevant conclusion.
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