Final Review Sheet

Final Review Sheet - Argumentation & Falzon What makes...

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Sound argument – has true premises. (All 4-legged creatures have wings. All spiders have 4 legs. So, all spiders have wings) Valid argument – follows the rules of logic. (If P then Q) Deductive argument – conclusion follows necessarily Inductive argument – generalizing from something like experiences. How does Falzon define critical thinking and what is the fallacy of closed thinking (give an ex.)? Critical thinking – One stands back from their views and beliefs and evaluates them to determine their validity and accuracy. Closed thinking – everything we encounter seems to confirm our beliefs, and nothing can be put forward to call them into question. Other fallacies: Vagueness (193), ad hominem, non sequitur, false dichotomy (with an example) Vagueness – term or claim whose meaning is not precisely determined. Ad hominem – attacks person not argumental support. Non sequitur – argument gets re-routed, conclusion doesn’t match original argument. Irrelevant conclusion. False dichotomy – 2 valid choices – “Love me or leave me” Socrates: Apology (A Socratic Dialogue) Who were the sophists? How does this relate to the contemporary use of the word (sophist/sophistry)? Sophist – Arguing, smart, quick persuasion. Paid, teacher, tutor. Taught the art of argumentation. Socrates’ account of his vocation (The Oracle of Delphi) as a response to the old accusers Old accusers – accused him of being crazy and talking about things above the sky and below the earth. Oracle of Delphi – told him he was the wisest man of all. Socrates didn’t believe it and investigated and knows he is wisest because he knows that he knows nothing. Socrates’ defense against the New Accusers’ charge that he deliberately corrupts the youth (25c-26a) If he is surrounded by evil or good he will be affected by it. If he corrupts the youth (evil) then he runs the risk of being harmed and he wouldn’t harm himself. Socrates on why he refuses to beg for acquittal He wants them to decide based on facts, arguments, and the law. Begging for acquittal will be based on pity for him rather than using the facts as a basis. The contents of Socrates’ gadfly speech (30c-31c) What his mission is - questioning origins for himself - questioning for city’s good (selfless) People are more worried about other things instead of their beliefs or virtue. Socrates is the gadfly that stirs the sleeping horse (city of Athens). Meno (A Socratic Dialogue) What is Socrates looking for in a definition, and how does Meno fail to give one to Socrates? (esp. bees) Socrates rejects Meno’s definitions - swarm of bees – same in each - slave or child cannot be virtuous based on Meno’s definition - rule in a particular way – in a virtuous way? No definition can have the problem in it. The “3 moments,” and where they can be observed in the text
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Final Review Sheet - Argumentation & Falzon What makes...

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