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MIS REVIEW TEST 2 - MIS REVIEW TEST 2 Probability the...

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Noise Barriers Filters Communication cycle Supervisor & subordinate meet Measure performance after deadline Work at achieving goals Set goals that are: Mutually agreed on Concrete Objective Measurable Have specified deadline Feedback MIS REVIEW TEST 2 Probability- the probability of an event is the proportion of times we would expect the event to occur in an infinitely long series of identical sampling events. - If all the possible outcomes are equally likely, the probability of the occurrence of an event is equal to the proportion of the possible outcomes characterized by the event. -Useful in situations with some degree of uncertainty; gives us a way of expressing the degree of assurance that a particular event will occur. -Chance factors inherent in forming sample results. Sample results must therefore be interpreted with that in mind. -The probability of one event or another is obtained by adding their individual probabilities, provided the events are mutually exclusive -The probability of joint occurrence is obtained by multiplying their separate probabilities -Any relative frequency distribution may be interpreted as a probability distribution Confidence statement- statistic +/- margin of error Margin of error- 1/ n Confidence interval- a range of values constructed from sample data so the parameter occurs within that range at a specified probability. The specified level of probability is called the level of confidence Confidence interval for sample mean: ± x zsn Confidence interval for sample proportion: ± - p zp1 pn Statistical significance- an observed effect so large that it would rarely occur by chance Sampling frame- the list of units from which a sample is chosen Built in bias- convenience sample or voluntary response Randomness- Random Sample Designs: simple, multi stage, systematic, stratified, cluster, hybrid Simple Random Sample (SRS)- a sample of N units from the sampling frame chosen in such a way that every possible group of N units has the same chance of being chosen
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Shortcomings: bias due to poor sampling frame, cost of sampling Random: fair, representative, unbiased Stratified Random Sample-
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