midterm review #1

midterm review #1 - Sociology 134 midterm review #1 Lecture...

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Sociology 134 midterm review #1 29/02/2008 15:44:00 Lecture #2-Is Race Real? Differences in Phenotype can be easily observed Phenotype : observable physical characteristics of an organism, as determined by both genetic makeup and environment influences Race : relevant phenotypic differences include skin and eye color, hair color and texture and shape of some facial features o Dark-skinned individuals=better survival below the equator o Some say race=adaptative o Wider nose-more oxygen absorption in arid climates Seal and Barack Obama=”black” No reason to assume that a child of Kenyan/American parentage and one of Brazilian/Nigerian parentage would be classified as same “race” Doesn’t tell us much about their similarity and differences TRAITS Rather than assuming that everyone that looks alike must be alike at the genetic level, it makes more sense to talk about adaptive traits which tended to spring up in particular climates which selected for them o Ex. Middle Easterners and the ability to digest gluten vs. Northern Europeans and the ability to digest cow’s milk lactose Clines A gradual change in a character of feature across the distributional range of a species or population These traits are usually adaptive and correlated with an environmental or geographic transition BRACE: (reading) “There are no races only clines” o don’t see major changes across regions in small periods of tie
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DNA and race If race isn’t real how can you test someone’s DNA and determine that you are “9% Native American” and “11% North African” as in the Harmon aricles? o **adaptive traits vs. non-recombinant DNA o DNA tests focus on non-recombining DNA markers found in mitochondrial DNA o They are passed unchanged besides sporadic mutation, can trace ancestry back thousands of years (with comparison DNA) o Race is even more salient in the US-> we have such an extreme geographic diversity “Jews can’t play basketball” Hebrew Leagues Jewish Boxing Champs-path to rapid economic development, 1/3 of professional boxers were Jewish in 1920s and 1930s Opportunity Structure The reason one racial group comes to dominate a particular sport probably has more to do with the pathways to economic success available in any given society Differential opportunity structures refer to the fact that in many societies not all paths to success are equally accessible to all people (ie. Not everyone has the money to go to college) Differential opportunity structures o Poorest Americans have very limited opportunities to achieve wealth o Decline of higher paid unionized manufacturing jobs, increase in very low wage service jobs o Extremely poor public education in poor neighborhoods o Wage stagnation coupled with an increase in cost of living For the poor, pathways to economic success and social respectability have been limited to:
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o Sports (which may help pay for college)
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course SOC 134 taught by Professor Shoemaker during the Spring '08 term at Wisconsin.

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midterm review #1 - Sociology 134 midterm review #1 Lecture...

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