Differentiation - Differentiation(or The Cascade of...

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Differentiation (or The Cascade of Transcription Regulators) I. The concept of Genomic Equivalence Do all cells contain the genetic information necessary to make any other cell or is it lost during specialization? totipotent cells, pluripotent cells, stem cells, and cloning Technique: Remove nucleus from cell in embryo (various ages), implant into enucleated egg. Develops normally in many cases Observation: Survival of embryo declines with age of donor nucleus. Conclusion: Cells differentiate but retain genetic information Even Adult Organisms of Totipotent John B. Gurdon: transplanted nuclei from advanced larvae into eggs. -nuclear transplants -donors: tadpoles, even adults -recipients: eggs with inactivated nuclei Other evidence that genome remains constant? 1. The karyotype is constant 2. The amount of DNA is constant (supporting evidence, not proof) 3. F.C. Steward (C.U.) mature phloem cells from carrot are totipotent: thus each plant cell must carry entire genome II. Fate Maps A. Spatial projections B. What is the fate of any given cell and how is it determined? o
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course BIO G 102 taught by Professor Walcott during the Spring '08 term at Cornell.

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Differentiation - Differentiation(or The Cascade of...

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