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3 LEARNING-1.pptx - LEARNING Learning is the process of...

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LEARNINGLearning is the process of acquiring new,or modifying existing, knowledge,behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.A relatively permanent change in behaviorthrough past experiences.(Walker,1967)
HabituationOur response to unchanging stimuli decreaseover time. This is aspect of adaption is asimple form of learning called Habituation.SensitizationA simple form of learning, appears as anincrease in responsiveness to a stimulus.Habitation and sensitization Provide organismswith useful way to adapt to their environment.
Learning theoriesAssociative learningtheories are based onbehaviorism where the stimulus-responserelationship and the influence of environmentare considered as the major sources oflearning .
Learning theoriesThecognitive learning theoriesinvolve the thinkingprocess and understandings.cognitive learning theory is based on thecognitivemodel of human behavior, i.e. it emphasizes on thefree will and positive aspects of human behavior.Cognition refers to the individual’s thoughts, feelings,ideas, knowledge and understanding about himselfand the environment.Thus, an organism applies this cognition in learningwhich results in not merely the response to a stimulus,but the application of internal image of the externalenvironment, so as to accomplish the goal.
BEHAVIOUR THEORIESClassical ConditioningOperant Conditioning
Theory of Classical ConditioningCONDITIONING: The modification of a naturalresponse through artificial means is calledconditioningA learning process that occurs when twostimuli are repeatedly paired: a responsewhich is at first elicited by the second stimulusis eventually elicited by the first stimulusalone.
BACKGROUND:IVAN PAVLOVproposed the theory of classicalconditioning.A Russian PhysiologistStudying the process of digestion in animalsConducting experiments on dogs
EXPERIMENT:He fitted some pipes in the mouth of the dogtoobserve saliva secretion by seeing and smellingthe food. he also arranged a bell. When the foodwas presented the bell also rang. he did this formany times i.e whenever He brought the food,before entering the room,he rang the bell.sincehere he changed the natural stimulus(food) withan artificial means(bell).he named thisphenomenon as CONDITIONING
CONCLUSION OF HIS THEORYTHE theory of classical conditioning states thatwhen a neutral stimulus is associated with ameaningful or natural stimulus, it produces asimilar response as for the meaningful stimulusi.eUCSUCRAfter Many times repeatedUCS+CSCRCSCR
Classical Conditioning Terminology1.) Unconditioned Stimulus (US)- The stimulus thatevokes a natural response. (food)2.) Unconditioned Response (UR)- The naturalreaction to the unconditioned stimulus. (salivation)3.) Conditioned Stimulus (CS)- Previously neutralstimulus that, through conditioning, evokesconditioned response. (bell)4.) Conditioned Response (CR)- Learned reactionto conditioned stimulus that occurs because ofprevious conditioning (salivation to bell)

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