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Unformatted text preview: REV IEW SHEET EXAM TWO Ch. 4, 8, 9, 10 This study guide is designed to help you organize your studying and review key concepts. This is not all inclusive and the chapters should be read in addition to your notes from lecture. Other things that may help you include: reviewing lecture notes and chapters in the book being able to identify all vocabulary words at the end of each chapter and provide examples the tests are more than definition, knowing how to apply the concepts is also an important part of exams Chapter 4 Developing through the Life Span 1) What do developmental psychologists study? The life cycle from conception to death, examining how we develop physically, mentally and socially. 2) What occurs during prenatal development? What are the differences between a zygote, embryo, and fetus? The formation of the zygote, embryo, and fetus. This is from conception to birth. a. Zygote: the fertilized egg, 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo. b. Embryo: the developing human organism from about 2 weeks from conception to the 2 nd month. c. Fetus: the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth. 3) What are teratogens? What is FAS and what are some of its effects? a. Teratogens: agents, such as chemicals and viruses, that can reach the embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm. b. FAS: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant womans heavy drinking. In severe cases, symptoms include noticeable facial misportions. 4) Describe some of the newborn abilities: rooting reflexes, preferences for faces, sounds, etc. a. Rooting reflex: a babys tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple. b. Babies prefer to look at faces and in a study spent nearly twice as many seconds looking a image that resembled a face rather than the one that did not. c. Babies prefer to hear the sound of their mothers voice, and a soothing voice. 5) What other cognitive developments are occurring during infancy? Babies will react to new stimuli but get bored looking at something theyve seen. This recognition indicates a simple form of learning. 6) Understand the concept of habituation. What is maturation? a. Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interests wanes and they look away sooner. b. maturation: biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience. Maturation decrees many of our commonalities-from standing before walking, to using nouns before adjectives....
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- Spring '08