Chapter 3 Notes - Phenotype: - the physical features and...

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Phenotype: - the physical features and functional traits of a cell or organism - reflection of the proteins it possesses at any point in time Gene(s): - the units of genetic information - a segment of DNA o Contains the information specifying a sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule or o Contains the sequence of nucleotides in a stable RNA molecule (tRNA, rRNA) - at any time only some of a cell’s genes are expressed (depending on the environment) - minimum set of genes required ‘to code for a cell’ is ~ 400, perhaps 25 for minimal cell Genotype: - the particular set of genes (and their nucleotide sequence) that an organism possesses Gene/Proteins Naming : - genes are specified by 3 lower case letters followed by a capitalized letter (b or i ) - proteins by 3 letters (title case) with a capitalized letter no underline or italics ** NO Rules! Therefore cannot determine function from name** Protein Structure: - each protein as a unique 3D structure determined by the primary structure - composed of amino acids o Possess and amino group (N) and carboxyl group (C), and a side chain (R) o Made up of more than 1 amino acid (usually more than 100) Amino Acids: - side chains can be roughly divided into hydrophilic and hydrophobic types o If charged or possesses polar groups in neutral environment: hydrophilic o If not, hydrophobic (tends to contain C-H) ** Exception: tryptophan and tyrosine have polar groups, but also benzene chains (C and H only) Globular Protein: - water soluble proteins characterized by a roughly spherical shape - hydrophobic side chains are buried inside d.t. hydrophobic effect Membrane Proteins: - embedded into lipid bilayer by amino acids with hydrophobic side chains o Parts of the protein exposed to water fold like a globular protein Composition and Structure of DNA and RNA
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This note was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course PSYCH 100 taught by Professor James during the Spring '08 term at The University of British Columbia.

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Chapter 3 Notes - Phenotype: - the physical features and...

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