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Unformatted text preview: American ideology - Bicameralism- is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers , Bicameralism is an essential and defining feature of the classic notion of mixed government . Bicameral legislatures tend to require a concurrent majority to pass legislation. In countries such as these, the upper house generally exists solely for the purpose of scrutinizing and possibly vetoing the decisions of the lower house. Checks and balances - t o prevent one branch from becoming supreme, and to induce the branches to cooperate, governance systems employing a separation of powers typically are created with a system of " checks and balances ", a term which, like separation of powers itself, is generally credited to Montesquieu . Checks and balances refers to the various procedural rules that allow one branch to limit another, such as the authority of the president to veto legislation passed by Congress, or the power of Congress to alter the composition and jurisdiction of the federal courts. Comte de Montesquieu- above Equality of opportunity Federalism - In the United States, federalism is the system of government in which power is divided between a central government and the government of each state. Before the U.S. Constitution was written, each American state was essentially sovereign. This federal arrangement, by which the central federal government exercises delegated power over some issues and the state governments exercise power over other issues, is one of the basic characteristics of the U.S. Constitution that checks governmental power. Other such characteristics are the separation of powers among the three branches of government--the legislative, executive, and judicial. The authors of the Federalist Papers ( Alexander Hamilton , James Madison and John Jay ) explained in essays number 45 and 46 how they expected state governments to exercise checks and balances on the national government to maintain limited government over time. John Locke - Locke believed that human nature is characterized by reason and tolerance. Like Hobbes, Locke believed that human nature allowed men to be selfish. This is apparent with the introduction of currency. In a natural state all people were equal and independent, and none had a right to harm anothers life, health, liberty, or possessions. Locke never refers to Hobbes by name, however, and may instead have been responding to other writers of the day.  Locke also advocated governmental checks and balances and believed that revolution is not only a right but an obligation in some circumstances. These ideas would come to have profound influence on the Constitution of the United States and its Declaration of Independence ....
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