As opposed to a one-sex model where a society views males and females as
one and the same, a two-sex system views and interprets males and females different in type as
refers to an “either-or” conceptualization of “race” as black/white, or
gender as masculinity/feminity, in contrast to a system allowing for multiple racial or gender
Sexual division of labor:
This term was introduced during various lectures in order to
emphasize the ways in which women are consigned to domestic, reproductive labor while men
are associated with work in the marketplace (or public sphere).
By understanding the sexual
division of labor, we are able to see the ways in which a commodity culture relies on gender
ideologies to produce images of men and women, to organize the television schedule, to create
genre formulas around sexual difference, and to hail women as consumers (as the ones who
). John Fiske’s
article on the television soap opera as a feminine genre argues that the genre
reflects and reinforces the association of women with the private sphere of the family and home.
hidden messages, the inferences, and the hints that emerge from the
story, character, etc.
Ex: Diane Raymond
; hidden in a text that a culture of homophobia and
heterosexism bars us from seeing
explicitly presented in a text.
Ex; Diane Raymond
openly gay character
rather than hinting at homoeroticism of lucy and ethel
set of beliefs that support and reproduce a set of material relations and distribution on
power. They dominate the ways we live and how we understand the world around us.
notes that media images shape our ideology
process by which those is power secure the consent of the socially subordinated to
the system that operates or subordinates them. The power and dominance that one social group
holds over others, according to
. Not through brute force but persuasion, mystification,
and consent it makes ideologies seem self-evident, indisputable, normal, and natural.
oppositions to the dominant forms of hegemony. Examples: graffiti, punk,
contributions to teaching us how to behave, what to think, believe, fear, and
desire, they show us how to dress and how to shop, how to respond to other social groups, how
to be popular, how to conform. Mass media is a source of cultural pedagogy.
we insert ourselves into this culture through our consumption, negotiation, and interpretation of
these media elements
Critical media literacy:
Cultural Media Literacy refers to the process of analyzing the ways in
which different forms of media effect their audience and how various audiences interpret and use
media culture in different ways. In "Cultural Studies, Multiculturalism and Media Culture" by
Douglas Kellner, the author describes three components of media literacy: production and