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chap04.slides.chem reactions

chap04.slides.chem reactions - Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions...

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Chapter 4 Chemical Reactions Sections 4.1 – 4.6
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Main Classification of Chemical Reactions A. Oxidation- Reduction Reaction or redox reaction 1. combination reaction or addition reaction 2. decomposition reactions 3. displacement reactions B. Metathetical Reactions 1. acid-base reactions or neutralization 2. precipitation reactions 3. reactions involving gas formations
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Oxidation-Reduction Reactions or Redox Reactions Redox reactions - involve gain or loss of electron(s) or change in charge. Charge is also referred to as oxidation number or oxidation state. 0 0 +1 -1 2Na (s) + Cl 2 (g) 2NaCl (s)
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Rules in Determining Oxidation Number or Charge 1. The oxidation number of any element in its elemental form is zero. Diatomic molecules, O 2 , N 2 , H 2 , Cl 2 , F 2 , Br 2 , I 2 , also have a zero charge. 2. The oxidation number of a mono-atomic ion is equal to its charge. Group Oxidation Number IA Ions +1 IIA Ions +2 VIIA Ions -1 VIA Ions -2
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3. The oxidation number of oxygen in any compound is -2 except in peroxides (O 2 2- ) and super-oxides (O 2 - ). 4. The oxidation number of hydrogen in any compound is +1 except in hydrides, H -1 5. The sum of the oxidation number of all atoms in a neutral compound is zero. H 3 P O 4 +1 (3) + 5 + ( -2 )4 = 0 6. The sum of the oxidation number of all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to the charge on the ion. Cr 2 O 7 -2 +6 (2) + -2 (7) = -2
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Types of Redox Reactions 1. Addition Reaction - two substances combine to form one product. oxidation reduction 0 0 +3 -2 4Fe(s) + 3O 2 (g) 2Fe 2 O 3 Oxidation - process that involve gain in positive charge or lose of electrons Reduction - process that involves gain of electrons or lose of positive charge
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Combustion of Fe Calcium metal and Cl 2 gas Combustion of Ca
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Sodium Metal and Chlorine Gas
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Oxidizing agent - substance that causes oxidation.
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