RockOnKey - The processes that made Death Valley continue to operate today For this question ignore the sand and gravel moved by water and wind and

RockOnKey - The processes that made Death Valley continue...

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Unformatted text preview: The processes that made Death Valley continue to operate today. For this question, ignore the sand and gravel moved by water and wind, and think about the big motions of the rocks beneath. Choose the best answer: what are they doing to the valleyRockOn #1 Points Awarded 13 Points Missed 0 Percentage 100% Scientists receive government funding primarily because: 1. They help humans do useful things. A. They are all sexy. B. They use a careful method. C. They all drink Diet Pepsi because they think it makes them look sexy. D. They learn the Truth. E. The government is often interested in seeing people live longer, or improving the economy, or having better and more-accurate explosive devices for the military, or in many other things that improve our lives, and science plus engineering and scientific medicine are better than any other human activity at delivering these. A cynic might say that politicians are often not all that interested in finding the Truth. And a realist would note that science is being improved all the time, and because you cannot improve on the Truth, science has not (yet?) learned the Truth. There are many methods in the world, some of them are careful, and many of them are not funded by the government. Some of our spouses or significant others may think that some scientists are sexy, but many other sexy persons are not funded by the government. One of the professors has been known to drink a competitor of Pepsi on occasion, and some scientists refrain from soft drinks entirely. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: A The best description of a scientist’s job is that she or he: 2. Uses the scientific method to learn the Truth. A. Invents new ideas, and shows that some ideas are false. B. Uses only high-tech equipment. C. Invents new ideas, and proves that some ideas are True. D. Is always sexy. E. Much of the fun in science is coming up with great new ideas (hypotheses, if you like fancy words). But for your new idea to “win”, you have to show that it does better than old ideas, so you have to prove those old ideas false (or incomplete, or not-quite-right, or whatever “nice” word you might prefer). The scientific method is a powerful way for humans to learn to do things, and learn what does and doesn’t work, but the results of science are always open to improvement, so are not claimed to be Truth, and probably are not Truth. Some scientists still use pencils and look at things, and there are probably a few non-sexy scientists around somewhere. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: B The final arbitrator between two alternate theories (for example Aristotle’s and Newton’s ideas) is: 3. A public opinion poll conducted by Gallup, ABC News, and Fox News. A. The Nobel Prize Committee in Stockholm, Sweden. B. Nature, and experiments conducted to test each idea. C. A committee of "wise men" who gather twice a year to arbitrate such disputes. D. Unlike painting or literature, scientific inquiry has a well-defined procedure for figuring out if Newton's ideas are better or if Aristotle had it right all along. In looking at a painting, we can ask different people what they think, or we can make up our own mind on whether we like it or not, and that is perfectly valid. In science, we have to ask: does the idea fit with the way the world works? Can I predict the speed of a falling object better using Newton's ideas or Aristotle's? As it turns out, Aristotle’s ideas didn’t predict things very well, and Newton’s did. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C When we agree that a particular scientific theory is a good one and we will use it to help us make new things, cure new diseases, etc., that "agreement" came about because: 4. A single, well-respected scientist put forward the idea. A. A single experiment had an outcome that was well-predicted by that theory. B. That's what it says in all the books. C. The Nobel prize committee gave the inventor of the idea a lot of money. D. A number of different experiments by different people all had outcomes that were well- predicted by the theory. E. Agreement on scientific theories is a contentious, drawn-out, and sometimes acrimonious business. Scientists are no better (and no worse!) than everybody else: we think we are right and those who disagree with us are dunderheads! I put forward my idea, and the experiments that I did that show the idea is a good one... then everybody else piles on and pooh-poohs my idea. BUT, they go out and do experiments that try and show my ideas are wrong... and they can't do it! So eventually all those experiments accumulate, and finally people agree that my idea is a good one. (Sometimes accompanied by a sneer: "...but of course I knew that all along. I just didn't bother to publicize it..." I told you, scientists are no better and no worse than the rest of the world.) Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: E Which is more likely to contain reliable information? 5. A cola commercial. A. A magazine article summarizing recent newspaper and television reports. B. A refereed article in a learned journal. C. The views of public figures reported in a newspaper article. D. A web page posted by an independent “think-tank”. E. No source of information is perfect, but the refereed articles in learned journals put immense effort into “getting it right”. The web has reliable information, of course, but probably most of the information on the web is not especially reliable. The web is very inexpensive, and lots of people put junk on it. Think tanks also often are pushing an agenda, and try to “spin” information their way. Most newspapers are around for the long haul, and try to make the news fairly accurate, although some newspapers do have agendas, and the editorial pages are not especially accurate. But, if the report is on the views of a public figure, the newspaper may accurately report what the public figure said, but what the public figure said may be less than completely accurate. Some magazines are quite good and careful, but many are pushing a belief or just overhyping things to tease you into buying the magazine. And while you are welcome to believe that drinking a particular cola makes you sexy… don’t count on it. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C What is accurate about peer review of scientific papers? 6. It provides quality control by eliminating many mistakes. A. It almost always leads to the recommendation that the papers be published without changes. B. It insures that they are True. C. It is primarily done by government bureaucrats hired for that purpose. D. It is why we call scientific papers “primary sources”. E. Reviewers work hard to identify errors of any sort, almost always identify many, and then the reviewers and editors insist that those errors be fixed before publication. Review is done voluntarily by scientists; this is part of the cost of being a member of this great human undertaking. Science doesn’t claim Truth; although science strives to be as accurate as humanly possible, that is often well short of Truth. Asking grandpa what school was like in his childhood gives you a primary source (grandpa), even if he insists that he walked 20 miles through neck-deep snow, uphill both ways. Some primary sources have selective memories. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: A The Earth is layered. Most geologists believe that this layering originated primarily because: 7. The Earth partially or completely melted soon after it formed, and the denser materials fell to the center. A. The Earth has been separating bit-by-bit for billions of years as the cold oceanic slabs sink all the way to the center and pile up. B. Graham Spanier decreed that it be, so it was. C. The denser material fell together from space first, and then the less-dense material fell in later. D. The Moon flew out of the Earth after a great collision with a Mars-sized body, causing the Earth to spin faster and separate. E. Melting allows things to sort out more easily. Think of the rocks and snow and ice and salt and squirrel parts that stick on the bottom of your car when you drive in a snowstorm, and how they sort themselves out when they melt in the garage or in the spring. Much evidence points to early separation of the Earth into layers, before the collision with a Mars-sized body that blasted out the material that made the moon, although a little bit of separating may still be going on. The type of material falling together to make the planet may have changed as the planet formed, but this doesn’t seem to have been too important in controlling things. And mighty as Graham Spanier is, this was a bit before his time. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: A The Earth has layers of different composition, and layers of different behavior. What is known about these different types of layering? 8. Each behavioral change is controlled by a compositional change. A. No behavioral change is controlled by a compositional change. B. The lithosphere is poor in silica throughout, and the asthenosphere is richer in silica. C. Sometimes a change in behavior is caused by a change in composition, and sometimes a change in behavior is caused by a change in temperature or pressure. D. The crust breaks, and the mantle flows. E. The solid inner core and liquid outer core are both believed to be iron with a little nickel and other materials; the inner core is solid because the pressure on it is higher than on the liquid outer core. The change from the liquid outer core to the solid mantle occurs because of a change in composition, from a mostly iron core to a silica-iron mantle. Hence, some changes in behavior are caused by changes in composition, and other changes in behavior are caused by changes in pressure-temperature conditions. The crust does break typically, but so does the upper mantle—the change to flowing happens a ways down in the mantle, where the crust-plus-upper-mantle lithosphere meets the deeper-in-the-mantle asthenosphere. And while both lithosphere and asthenosphere have silica, the lithosphere on average has more. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: D The crust floats on the mantle. The lithosphere tends to break rather than flow (although there is some flowage in the deeper part of the crust) and the asthenosphere tends to flow rather than break. Which of the following is more nearly correct? 9. The asthenosphere is the crust and uppermost mantle, and the lithosphere is deeper in the mantle. A. The lithosphere is the crust, and the asthenosphere is the upper mantle. B. The lithosphere includes the crust and upper mantle, whereas the asthenosphere includes a deeper, warmer layer in the mantle. C. The Pepsi-sphere occurs beneath the asthenosphere. D. The lithosphere is the upper mantle, and the asthenosphere is the crust. E. The uppermost mantle is cold enough that it doesn’t flow easily, so it rides along with the crust in lithospheric plates rafting on deeper, softer asthenospheric mantle. The deepest crust is a bit soft, because at a given temperature the high-silica crust is softer than the low silica mantle, but let’s not get too complex here. And even if Pepsi could possibly survive the immense temperatures and pressures of the asthenosphere, the Pepsi would quickly be squirted up to the surface and could not persist down there. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C The Earth includes: 10. A liquid asthenosphere, a solid mantle, and a watery hydrosphere. A. A breaks-rather-than-flows asthenosphere, and a solid outer core. B. A Coke inner core, a Pepsi outer core, and a mantle of Bart Simpson Burger King glasses. C. A breaks-rather-than-flows lithosphere, a flows-rather-than-breaks asthenosphere, and a solid inner core. D. A solid inner core in direct contact with a liquid asthenosphere. E. High pressure stabilizes solid in the inner core, but the slightly lower pressure on the outer core allows the iron there to be melted. The iron-silicate mantle is mostly solid, but a bit of melt occurs in the asthenosphere. The uppermost part of the mantle and the crust are cold enough to break rather than flowing. And the great heat of the core would break down both natural and artificial sweeteners, so cola cannot be found there. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: D Two neutral atoms have the same number of protons in the nucleus, but different numbers of neutrons. These are: 11. Different packaging of the same cola. A. Different isotopes of the same element. B. Different isopleths of the same element. C. Different elements. D. Different ions of the same element. E. The element is determined by the number of protons, so if each atom has the same number of protons, the atoms are the same element. Changing the number of neutrons primarily affects the weight, giving a different isotope of the same element. (Changing the number of neutrons too much can introduce radioactivity, so the isotope won’t hang around forever.) Ions are made by gaining or losing electrons. Isopleths are lines on a map connecting places with the same concentration of something that someone has measured, not exactly relevant here. And cola requires making atoms into molecules, and then mixing molecules of several sorts (water, sweetener, coloring agent, flavoring agent, perhaps caffeine) to make cola. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: B Using ordinary means (fire, sunlight, our digestive systems) we can take matter apart into smaller and smaller pieces, and the smallest pieces we typically produce are: 12. Neutrons. A. Protons. B. Atoms. C. Quarks. D. Nuclei. E. We can break matter down into atoms (Greek for “not cuttable” because the Greeks didn’t have atom smashers or other exotic tools that would allow cutting atoms into smaller pieces). All of the wrong answers here are smaller pieces of atoms, but cannot normally be isolated by “ordinary” tools. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C Nuclei of atoms are made up of: 13. Neutrons, usually with electrons added. A. Protons. B. Protons, usually with electrons added. C. Protons, usually with neutrons added. D. Neutrons. E. The simplest nucleus is the single proton in “ordinary” hydrogen. All other nuclei include protons and neutrons. Electrons make the cloud around the nucleus. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: Top of Form D RockOn #1 Your response has been submitted successfully. Points Awarded 13 Points Missed 0 Percentage 100% Most Americans support science because: 1. All Americans are fascinated by science. A. Science has helped make our lives easier, safer, etc. B. All scientists are sexy. C. All Americans are bored silly by science. D. The scientific method allows scientists to learn the Truth. E. Without science and technology, the great majority of us would be dead, so we tend to be supporters of science. Although we know that science works, we’re never sure that it is completely right. Students so often discover things that professors missed, or that professors got wrong, that scientists would be silly to claim Truth. Comparing the TV ratings of the latest hit to the ratings of the latest Nova broadcast on public broadcasting shows that many Americans are not fascinated by science, but the Nova ratings are above zero, so some people are fascinated by science. And hope as we might, it is unfortunately clear that not every scientist is sexy (just most of them are…). Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: B A scientist gains knowledge about how the world works, and uses that information to successfully predict what will happen in an experiment. This proves that the scientist’s knowledge is: 2. Lucky; no one knows what is going on, so only lucky people get things right. A. Cheating. B. One or more of True, lucky, or close to being true (or cheating), but we can’t tell which. C. Close; no one really knows what is going on, but people sort of know. D. True; you can’t get it right unless you know what is going on. E. If you guessed “heads” before a coin flip, and it came up heads, that would NOT prove that you can predict all coin flips; you will get half of such guesses correct by chance. You might be cheating, you might be lucky, or you might have figured something out. Points Earned: 1/1 Your Response: C Practice Quiz #10 Which is accurate about the history of the Grand Canyon: 1. The rock record of the canyon contains exactly one unconformity. A. The oldest rocks are on top, with younger ones beneath, as shown by all of the footprints being upside-down in the rocks of the canyon walls. B. In the deepest part of the canyon, the river cuts through rocks formed by metamorphism of older sedimentary rocks in the heart of a mountain range. C. The canyon is wider at the top and narrower at the bottom because the river was wider when the region was wetter, and has narrowed as deserts spread recently. D. The Kaibab limestone that forms the upper rim of the canyon is the youngest rock layer known from Arizona and surrounding states. E. The Colorado River is cutting through the metamorphic rocks from the heart of an old mountain range. The sedimentary rocks above are right-side up, and the Kaibab Limestone slants down to the north beneath the rocks of Zion, which are older than the rocks of Bryce, among others. Many unconformities exist in the walls of the Canyon, including the one below the Precambrian sediments and the one above those sediments. The idea of the river narrowing over time was the hypothesis that an interested tourist presented to one of the professors and a ranger at the Canyon a few years ago. When the professor asked whether the tourist would want to go out on a narrow point with a jackhammer, the tourist said no, because the rocks might fall off and slide down into the Canyon. When the professor pointed out the many places that rocks had fallen off and slid down, the quick- witted tourist figured out that the Canyon has been widened by such rockfalls as the river has cut downward. Points Earned: 0/1 Correct Answer: C Your Response: A The two pictures above, I and II, show fossils in rocks from the Grand Canyon. Each is “typical”— the rocks near sample I contain fossils similar to those shown in sample I, and the rocks near sample II contain fossils similar to those shown in sample II. It is likely that: 2. Sample I is from high in the cliffs of the Canyon, and sample II is also from high in the cliffs of the Canyon. A. Sample I is from B. Sample I is from C. Sample I is from near the river. D. Sample I is from E. Graham Spanier’s backyard, and Sample II is from Joe Paterno’s backyard. near the river, and sample II is also from near the river. high in the cliffs of the Grand Canyon, and sample II is from much lower, near the river, and sample II is from high in the cliffs of the Grand Canyon. Sample I is a wonderful shell hash, or coquina, from the Supai Rocks well up the side of the Canyon, and contains shells from a great diversity of different creatures. Sample II includes algal-mat deposits (stromatolites) from the Precambrian Chuar Group of the Grand Canyon Supergroup, deep in the Canyon near the river, from a time when biology was not a whole lot more diverse than algal mats. Points Earned: 0/1 Correct Answer: D Your Response: A Geological evidence based on several radiometric techniques has provided a scientifically wellaccepted age for the Earth. Represent that age of the Earth as the 100-yard length of a football field, and any time interval can be represented as some distance on the field. (So something that lasted one-tenth of the age of the Earth would be ten yards, and something that lasted onehalf of the age of the Earth would be fifty yards.) On this scale, how long have you been alive? 3. 1 yard. A. 10 yards. B. 1 inch. C. 50 yards. D. Much less than the thickness of a sheet of paper. E. If the 4.6 billion years of Earth history are 100 yards, then the few thousand years of written history are just one-millionth of that history, just over the thickness of a sheet of paper. And your small piece of written history must be only a small fraction of a sheet o...
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