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Unformatted text preview: Cantata – a term originally meaning “something sung”; in its mature state, it consists of several movements, including one or more arias, ariosos, and recitatives; cantatas can be on secular subjects and intended for private performance or on religious subjects such as those of J.S. Bach for the German Lutheran church Walking bass – a bass line that moves at a moderate pace, mostly in equal note values, and often stepwise up or down the scale Chorale – the German word for the hymn of the Lutheran Church; hence a simple religious melody to be sung by the congregation Chorale fantasy- Beethoven conceived the Choral Fantasy as a finale for a concert at the Theater an der Wien on December 22, 1808, which featured the premieres of his Fifth and Sixth symphonies and his Piano Concerto No. 4. The Choral Fantasy, which in most performances lasts about twenty minutes, is divided into seven sections Oratorio – literally “something sung in an oratory,” an oratory being a hall or chapel used specifically for prayer and sometimes prayer with music Aria, de capo form – originated in Italian opera, has two musical sections, A and B, with the second usually contrasting in key and mood. When the singer reaches the end of part B, he or she is instructed by the words “de capo” to “take it from the top” and thus repeat A, note for note. Symphony – a genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several movements; also, the orchestral ensemble that plays this genre Sonata cycle- In reference to performance or recording, it almost always means the complete traversal of a set of works by a single composer. For example a "Beethoven sonata cycle" would refer to a performer playing all of Beethoven's piano sonatas. Chamber music – music, usually instrumental music, performed in a small concert hall or private residence with just one performer on each part String quartet – a standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a single first and second violin, a viola, and a cello; also, the genre of music, usually in three or four movements, composed for this ensemble Sonata – originally, “something sounded” on an instrument as opposed to something sung (a “cantata”); later, a multi-movement work for solo instrument or instrument with keyboard accompaniment Sonata allegro – a dramatic musical form that originated in the Classical period involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda Coda – a final and concluding section of a musical composition Exposition – in a fugue, the opening section, in which each voice in turn has the opportunity to present the subject; in sonata-allegro form, the principal section, in which all thematic material is presented Development – the center-most portion of sonata-allegro form, in which the thematic material of the exposition is developed and extended, transformed, or reduced to its essence; often the most confrontational and unstable section of the movement...
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- Spring '08
- Music, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Symphony, Sonata form, thematic material