Psych paper final

Psych paper final - Paper ID 172 Rapid eye movement sleep...

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Paper ID # 172 Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) consists of excessive motor activity during dreaming because of loss of skeletal muscle atonia during REM sleep (Olson, 200). This loss of motor inhibition can manifest itself in a variety of ways, from simple twitching of limbs to much more complex movements. These more complex movements are generally violent in nature, resulting in injury to either the patient, or the patient’s bed partner (Ohayonet, 1997). Though its prevalence in the general population is a mere 0.5% (Ohayonet, 1997), a prospective study showed that 38% of patients with RBD eventually developed Parkinson’s disease (Schenck, 1996). Also, in idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD) patients, RBD can occur anywhere from 3 to 13 years before the onset of the disease (Boeve, 2003). Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurological disorder, and is characterized by tremors while resting, reduction in voluntary movement, and muscular rigidity (Rosenzweig, Leiman, & Breedlove, 2001). Patients exhibit a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra that progresses with time. Cell death in the area is continuous, but symptoms of the disease will only appear after a major loss. The disease is one of the most common neurological conditions associated with visual hallucinations – the perception of objects in the visual field which do not actually exist. The segue into hallucinations can start with illusions, where sensory perception is greatly distorted, but nonexistent sensory information is not present. These illusions usually last for several minutes, during which time the subject could be either conscious and normal, or drowsy (Manford & Anderrman, 1998). But most importantly, patients tend to preserve insight into these hallucinations, and therefore can report when they have them.
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Paper ID # 172 Hallucinations are often considered to be a side effect of the dopaminergic treatment for PD patients (Sanchez-Ramos, 1996), but three pieces of more recent evidence suggest otherwise. Nomura et al. (2003) suggested that VHs in PD are likely to be related to a REM sleep disorder. Pacchetti et al. (2005) showed that RBD was associated with the presence of psychotic disorders in
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This essay was uploaded on 04/21/2008 for the course PSY 91 taught by Professor Williams during the Spring '08 term at Duke.

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Psych paper final - Paper ID 172 Rapid eye movement sleep...

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