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Chapter 7 Notes - Anatomy & PhysiologyChapter 7: The...

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Anatomy & Physiology—Chapter 7: The Nervous SystemI.Basic Principles of the Nervous SystemNervous system—the body’s control and communication center; directs every body system and governs allmovement, sensation, thought, and emotionIt signals by sending electrical impulses, which are rapid (no delay) and specific (it is directed)3 main functions:1.Monitors changes (or stimuli) that occur internally or externally2.Processes and interprets sensory information—integration3.Able to respond to this information**The endocrine system works with nervous system to maintain homeostasis**II.Organization of the Nervous SystemStructural ClassificationCentral Nervous System (CNS)—consists of the brain and spinal cord in the dorsal body cavity; integrating andcommand centers of the nervous systemoInterprets incoming sensory information and then sends the instructions/responses to that informationPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)—nervous tissue outside the CNS; made up of nerves that extend from the brainand spinal cord—cranial and spinal nervesoSpinal nerves carry impulses to and from the spinal cordoCranial nerves carry impulses to and from the brainoNerves serve as the communication lines between the CNS to organs, muscles, etc.—link all parts of the body**SEE MEDICAL TERM SHEET ON PAGE 226**Functional Classification—concerned only with PNS!Sensory division (afferent division)—conveys impulses from the PNS to the CNS; conveys impulses to the CNSfrom sensory receptors in various parts of the bodyMotordivision—conveys impulses from the CNS to the PNS; conveys impulses from the CNS to effector organs,muscles, and glandsoSomatic nervous system—voluntary nervous system; allows us to consciously control our skeletal musclesoAutonomic nervous system—(involuntary) controls motor functions of internal organs, cardiac muscles, and glands;what one division stimulates, the other inhibitsSympathetic system—fight vs. flight; works best in excited stateParasympathetic system—resting and digesting system; works best when body is at restIII.Neurophysiology—study of how the nervous system works/functionsSupporting cells (neuroglia/glia/glial cells)—protect, insulate, and support neurons; do not transmit nerve impulses;always able to divideCNS supporting cells:oAstrocytes—star-shaped cells that help control the chemical environment in the brain; braces and anchors neuronsto the blood capillaries; makes up nearly half of neuro tissueoMicroglia—spider-like phagocytes that dispose of debris and dead brain cellsoEpendymal cells—line the central cavities of the brain and spinal cord; these are ciliated; circulate cerebrospinalfluidoOligodendrocytes—produces myelin sheaths (fatty, insulating covering) on the neurons in the central nervoussystem; do this by wrapping their processes around the nerve fibersPNS supporting cells:o

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Guitro
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