350 lecture guide

350 lecture guide - Lecture 1 1 Identify and explain the...

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Lecture 1: 1. Identify and explain the main properties and functions in cells: Movement – ie muscle movement Conductivity – ie nerve cells Absorption – ie eating Secretion – hormone secretion Excretion – getting rid of waste Respiration – take in oxygen Reproduction – cell division Communication – with other cells 2. Identify the organelles of cells. What are the main functions of these organelles? What are identifying features of these organelles? Nucleus – the largest organelle of the cell. Inside is the nucleolus which contains DNA and RNA. It has two membranes filled with pores. Cytosol – aqueous solution that fills the cell, makes up half the volume. Ribosomes – read RNA to make proteins, are locate on the rough ER and throughout the cytosol. Endoplasmic reticulum – organelle that surrounds the nucleous, first rough, which is studded with ribosomes which is where many of the proteins are synthesized, and then smooth, which helps make the final formation of the proteins. Golgi apparatus – located near the nucleus and composed of folds called cristernae that form secretory vesicles and bud off that usually contain proteins. Lysosomes – structures that originate from the golgi complex that contain digestive enzymes. Peroxisomes – similar to lysosomes but contain or utilize peroxide. Mitochondria – double membrane with cristae where respiration through electron transport chain takes place. Has it’s own DNA. 3. What are the components of the cytoskeleton? What functions do these components have? The Cytoskeleton is made of proteins, maintains cell shape, and enables cells to move, transport objects, vesicles, within the cell, and organelles, and serve as movement tracks. It is made of filaments – actin, intermediate filaments and microtubules. 4. what are the components and characteristics of cell membranes? Why are membranes important? Membranes are made of a lipids and proteins. They surround the cell and organelles. They are important for cell structure, protection, activation, communication and serve as transport mechanisms. 5. What are receptors? What are the roles for receptors in cell signaling? Receptors, or ligands hare protein molecules on plasma and organelle membranes that have a very specific shape and bind to very specific molecules that match up shape wise. Receptor binding is the first step in cell signaling. Different receptor types are channel-linked, catalytic, and g-protein-linked. 6. Identify the various roles of plasma membrane proteins. Transport channels Enzymatic functions Cell surface receptors Cell surface markers – cells need to recognize each other Cytoskeletal attachment.a 7. Define anabolism and catabolism.
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Anabolism – an energy using up process Catabolism – an energy creating process – glycolysis 8. Why is ATP important? ATP is the main energy source used in the cell.
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350 lecture guide - Lecture 1 1 Identify and explain the...

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