HIST CHP 28 - AMERICAN HISTORY CHP 28 A TROUBLED PEACE(1945 1953 COLD WAR THE NEW PRESIDENT A had doubt about Trumans ability to fill Franklin

HIST CHP 28 - AMERICAN HISTORY CHP 28 A TROUBLED PEACE(1945...

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AMERICAN HISTORY CHP 28/ A TROUBLED PEACE (1945 – 1953) – COLD WAR THE NEW PRESIDENT A. had doubt about Truman’s ability to fill Franklin Roosevelt’s chair in the Oval Office Had contested the KKK in Missouri He hated totalitarianism + suspicious of the Soviets for their repression of freedom & dissert Not a lot of experience but wasn’t afraid of responsibilities CONSERVATION, PRICES & STRIKES - Hill Burton Act: provided Federal funds for the construction of Public & voluntary hospitals - The Full Employment Act (1946): tax cuts to stimulate investments, promotion of government business cooperation & creation of a Council of Eco Advisers High postwar demand for goods: price increases - Also, organized labor demanded a greater share of corporate profits Strike against GM by the United Auto Workers (UAW) Nov. 1945 POLITICAL EARTHQUAKE (1946) Fall 1946, A. thought Truman was ridiculous Election of 1946: Rep. party won the control of both houses of Congress for the 1 st time since the election of Hoover in 1928 Aim: not only to block extension of the New Deal but to roll back as many of its advances as possible THE EMERGENCE OF THE COLD WAR Immediate postwar years Lasted more than a half century DIVISION OVER THE ATOM Stalin had authorized a secret crash program to build a Soviet nuclear weapon But A. took comfort in being the only one who had it A. policymakers like Secretary of State Byrnes saw the bomb as a means of countering Soviet superiority Atomic Energy Commission to foster research & dvpt in nuclear energy RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE COLD WAR Truman was angered by the extension of Soviet totalitarianism to Eastern Europe US & Soviet Union were divided by a genuine clash of political, eco & ideological interests THE DOCTRINE OF CONTAINMENT Soviet were driven to aggressiveness by a “traditional & instinctive Russian sense of insecurity” Truman first articulated the doctrine of containment in 1947, in a policy initiative prompted by the situation in Greece: gvt was fighting a civil war against pro-communist insurgents Secretary of State: Dean Acheson: strong advocate of containment Came to be known as the Truman doctrine Fall of Greece would lead to losses to freedom elsewhere THE MARSHALL PLAN George Marshall: Secretary of State who had succeeded Byrnes Was worried for Europe Communist Parties were gaining significant support
If the US did not help restore Europe’s economy: “economic, social & political deterioration if a very grave character” would result Under the Marshall Plans: European gvts would get grants of A. goods that they could sell Complimentary with the Truman Doctrine For Republicans: “International New Dealism” IN DEFENSE OF EUROPE - 1947: the Molotov Plan: bilateral trade agreements with countries in the eastern bloc -

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