October 23 - October 23, 2006 HIP AND KNEE I. Introduction:...

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October 23, 2006 HIP AND KNEE I. Introduction: Lower Versus Upper Limb A. Similarities 1. Number and general arrangement of bones, from proximal to distal 2. General types of joints (shoulder/hip, elbow/knee, wrist/ankle, etc.) 3. Compartmentalization of muscles into “groups”. i.e. fascial septa help you keep things organized, no matter which limb you’re in. 4. Nerves originate from plexuses off spinal cord, largest branch is posterior. i.e. sciatic nerve from sacral B. Dissimilarities 1. Different rotations during development – upper limb external, lower limb internal 2. As a result, knee and elbow flex in opposite directions 3. Dorsum of foot continuous w/anterior leg, sole w/posterior leg (dorsum of hand continuous with posterior forearm, palm w/anterior forearm) 4. Change in some muscle actions – e.g., anterior thigh mm. hip flexors but knee extensors 5. Different functions – lower limb built for stability, upper limb for manipulation (i.e. hand vs toes) a. Pelvis much stronger, less mobile than shoulder girdle b. Hip joint much deeper, stronger ligaments than shoulder joint c. Knee – slight rotation possible but basically hinge joint, with no supination/pronation d. Leg and foot – pedestal-like, very reduced fibula, large hallux (big toe), foot arches II. Hip A. Bones 1. Innominates (“hip bones”) ( os coxae ) - Ilium, ischium, pubis (fuse in mid-adolescence) - features (we’ve mentioned some before)
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course BIOLOGY 020.152 taught by Professor Pearlman during the Spring '08 term at Johns Hopkins.

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October 23 - October 23, 2006 HIP AND KNEE I. Introduction:...

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