October 11 - INTRODUCTION TO BONES JOINTS AND MUSCLES I...

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October 11, 2006 INTRODUCTION TO BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES I. Bone A. Introduction 1. Bone is a dense connective tissue, unique in that extracellular components are calcified, imparting its characteristic hardness and strength. 2. Composition - 35% organic (mainly collagen), and 65% inorganic (mainly calcium phosphate). Combination provides both tensile and compressive strength. 3. Bones are complex living organs, consisting of bone tissue, periosteum and endosteum, blood and lymph vessels, nerves. B. Functions of bone 1. Support of soft tissues, resistance to gravity. – i.e. cranial cavity 2. Muscle attachment , providing mechanical basis for movement 3. Protection of internal organs – i.e. ribcage 4. Production of red blood cells (in marrow) 5. Mineral reservoir – Calcium exchange, crucial for maintaining balance. C. Classification of bones – 3 ways to do it 1. Basic structure: cancellous ( trabecular , porous, spongy) vs. cortical (denser bone) 2. Regional a. Axial (skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum) b. Appendicular (limbs and limb girdles) 3. Shape and structure a. long (most limb bones: i.e. femur) b. short (wrist/carpals and ankle/tarsals) c. flat (cranial vault, ribs, sternum, scapula) d. irregular (much of skull, vertebrae, pelvis) e. sesamoid (bones found in tendons: patellae/kneecap, others)
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October 11 - INTRODUCTION TO BONES JOINTS AND MUSCLES I...

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