October 11, 2006
INTRODUCTION TO BONES, JOINTS, AND MUSCLES
1. Bone is a dense connective tissue, unique in that extracellular components are calcified, imparting its
characteristic hardness and strength.
2. Composition - 35% organic (mainly collagen), and 65% inorganic (mainly calcium phosphate). Combination
provides both tensile and compressive strength.
3. Bones are complex living organs, consisting of bone tissue, periosteum and endosteum, blood and lymph
Functions of bone
of soft tissues, resistance to gravity. – i.e. cranial cavity
, providing mechanical basis for movement
of internal organs – i.e. ribcage
Production of red blood cells
Mineral reservoir –
Calcium exchange, crucial for maintaining balance.
Classification of bones
– 3 ways to do it
1. Basic structure:
, porous, spongy) vs.
(skull, vertebral column, ribs, sternum)
(limbs and limb girdles)
3. Shape and structure
(most limb bones: i.e. femur)
(wrist/carpals and ankle/tarsals)
(cranial vault, ribs, sternum, scapula)
(much of skull, vertebrae, pelvis)
(bones found in tendons: patellae/kneecap, others)