November 1 - November 1 2006 BACK AND SHOULDER I...

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November 1, 2006 BACK AND SHOULDER I. Introduction – Joints A. Review of general types Name Soft Tissue Connection Movement Examples Fibrous fibrous connective tissue almost none skull sutures, distal tibia-fibula C artilaginous hyaline cartilage, fibrocart. slight pubic symphysis, intervertebral bodies Synovia l several components much most limb joints, ribs, intervertebral articular processes Synovial Joint Components: See slides. B. Joint Motions and Axis of Rotation 1. “ Axis of rotation ” is the line through a joint which remains stationary during its movement. 2. Thus, you’ll hear reference to uniaxial (hinge, pivot), biaxial (saddle, condyloid), and multiaxial (plane, ball-and-socket) joints. 3. The action of a muscle on a joint will be determined by its position relative to the axis/axes of rotation of the joint. II. Vertebral Column A. Functions 1. maintenance of posture and support of body weight and head 2. pivot for head 3. protection of spinal cord 4. trunk movements – rotation of the trunk above the waist B. Movements 1. A-P flexion (bend over)/extension (bend backward) 2. lateral flexion 3. rotation C. Curvature - In the embryo, it is concaved anteriorly. That’s known as primary curvature. 1. Primary – thoracic and sacral (adults retain it from early development) 2. Secondary – cervical and lumbar, helps bring our center of gravity to a vertical line. 3. Clinical note: pathological curvature: scoliosus (lateral), lordosis and kyphosis (exaggerated A-P) D. Components 1. Bones ( vertebrae ) (about 33 total) a. movable vertebrae – 7 cervical , 12 thoracic , 5 lumbar b. immobile (fused) vertebrae – 5 sacra l (sacrum), 3-5 coccygeal (coccyx) c. general structure (1) body
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