October 25 - October 25, 2006 LEG, FOOT, AND GAIT I....

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October 25, 2006 LEG, FOOT, AND GAIT I. Introduction: Functions of the Foot and Foot Movements A. Functions 1. weight support 2. “lever” in pushing off during gait (walking), a really complex lever 3. adjustment to uneven surface and/or different positions of leg over foot B. Movements 1. dorsiflexion/plantarflexion – around mediolateral axis through ankle joint 2. eversion/inversion – around longitudinal axis of foot through second digit of foot (occurs mainly between tarsal bones) 3. Actions of leg muscles on foot depend on where they lie relative to these axes of rotation. Muscles in anterior compartment dorsiflex, and those in posterior are plantarflex. II. Leg A. Bones and Joints 1. Tibia – more medial, main weight supporter, very robust. 2. Fibula – thinner, lateral bone, mainly for muscle attachments 3. Proximal tibiofibular joint is synovial, distal joint is fibrous. 4. Interosseous membrane plus other anterior and posterior ligaments tie two bones together firmly – only slight motion allowed B. Muscles 1. Anterior compartment – ankle dorsiflexors/toe extensors, also invert or evert, depending on position relative to axis of eversion/inversion a. tibialis anterior (dorsiflexion, inversion) b. extensor hallucis longus, extensor digitorum longus (dorsiflexion, extension of digits) c. peroneus tertius [note “ peroneu s” = “ fibularis ”] (dorsiflexion, eversion) d. Clinical note : “shin splints” = pain and swelling in anterior compartment due to overuse of muscles (especially tibialis anterior),sometimes slight tearing of periosteum covering tibia 2. Lateral compartment – ankle evertors, also help in plantarflexion a. peroneus longus - tendon runs under foot from lateral side to base of big toe b. peroneus brevis – tendon stops and inserts at 5th metatarsal 3. Posterior compartment (“calf”) – ankle plantarflexors/toe flexors, also inversion a. superficial group (all insert on calcaneus through calcaneal (“achilles”) tendon (ankle plantarflexion)
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October 25 - October 25, 2006 LEG, FOOT, AND GAIT I....

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