TEST THREE

TEST THREE - TEST THREE *Epiphytes - Have an unusual way of...

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TEST THREE *Epiphytes - Have an unusual way of living – they grow on another plant, but don’t harm it! Ex=Resurrection Fern and angiosperm (Spanish moss) *Lateral Maristem (Only present in woody plants) – tissues consisting of dividing cells in circular sheets throughout the length of shoots and roots. They are also responsible for secondary growth. *TWO KINDS: 1. Vascular Cambium – makes the vascular tissue 2. Cork Cambium – outer covering (ex= cork tree) LEAVES: *Deciduous trees = loose their leaves *Leaves assist in: 1. Anchoring – tendrils of a pea plant 2. Mechanical Defense (Cactus Spines) 3. Storage in succulents – plants that store water ex=aloe 4. Attracting pollinators 5. Prey capture – Venus flytraps and cobra lily – types of pitcher plants 6. Chemical Defense – white oleander can poison, or even kill livestock or humans. Lantana – spreading shrub, attracts butterflies, deciduous. Ingestion of this can lead to poisoning cattle. *SC state tree – cabbage palm – is an angiosperm. *Plant reproduction in angiosperms = 90% of all plants! ANGIOSPERM REPRODUCTION - Flower = specialized reproductive shoot on the sporophyte - Male gametophyte – pollen grains - Female gametophyte – embryo sac inside ovule *Ovule = will become the seed *Ovary = will become the fruit (surrounds ovule) Sexual Production in Angiosperms 1. Pollination *Not the same things as fertilization (combination of gametes) *The delivery of pollen to the stigma (often with the help of pollinators (bees) *Bats prefer flowers that have a strong smell or while and pale flowers that nocturnally bloom *Bees view flowers in ultraviolet wavelengths of color 2. Germination *Pollen grain grows a tube for the two sperm to swim to the egg 3. Double Fertilization *Transformation of the ovule to the seed *Egg is now 2n; endosperm is 3n
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Asexual Reproduction in Angiosperms *One method – vegetative propagation - Grafting a twig or bud from one plant to another. Ex = French grape vines HORMONES Definition: Chemical signals that coordinate the different parts of a multicellular organism; found in plants and animals. Made in one spot of the body and transported to another, where they act Effective in minute amount and response id very specific. *TWO KINDS: 1. Gibberellins – stimulate growth in leaves and stems. Stimulates development of fruit. Ends seed dormancy. 2. Ethylene – produced in response to stress Helps deciduous trees lose leaves in autumn Induces the ripening of fruits What Characteristics Define an Animal? *Eukaryotic *Multicellular *Ingestive Heterotroph * Lack cell walls *Reproduce Sexually (some asexually) *Embryos develop in a series of similar stages *Most are actively mobile How Did the Animal Kingdom Evolve? *Oldest fossils are 700 MILLION years old
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TEST THREE - TEST THREE *Epiphytes - Have an unusual way of...

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