AFRICA NAZARENE UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT : ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT UNIT TITLE: ATMOSPHERIC PROCESESES AND CLIMATE CHANGE UNIT CODE : ERM 300 PRE-REQUISITE: ERM 207 LECTURER : STEPHEN K. TIROP, M.Sc. 0722-623521/0771-628197; tiropsk[email protected]/[email protected] PURPOSE Changing weather patterns impacting food production and species migration. Fresh water scarcity risks becoming even more acute in drought-stricken countries and flooding may increasingly threaten our coastal communities and directly impact hundreds of thousands of people each year. Conflict is increasing over strained ecosystems and local communities are being forced from their homes. Solutions are needed now to enable our ecosystem to adapt to these changes so that they can retain productivity, continue to buffer extreme weather events and provide fresh water and a myriad of other services for all life on Earth. In addition, human communities need the knowledge and tools to effectively adapt to the impacts of climate change. Expected learning outcomes The unit will enable students to be able: 1. To describe different types of innovative policies on climate change 2. To evaluate the many factors those are contributing to climate change 3. To identify effective mitigation and adaptation strategies to impact climate change 4. To design pilot mitigation and adaptation projects Unit Content Weather and climate, the basic science of climate change, Climate change and global warming, The climate change indicators: Temperature rise; More extreme weather; Flora and fauna relocating; Rainfall is changing; Oceans are heating up and acidifying; Ocean temperature; Ocean acidification; Sea levels are rising, Reconstructed, observed and projected sea level rise: Estimates of contributions to sea level rise in recent decades; Ocean circulations are changing; Glaciers, sea ice and ice sheets; Arctic sea ice; Antarctic sea ice ; ice sheets and ice shelves; Greenland ice sheet; Glaciers, Desertification increase, Factors influencing climate change: The Page 1 of 47
greenhouse effect; Greenhouse gases; droplets (essentially clouds), it can also act to cool the surface of the earth; Carbon dioxide (CO2); Other greenhouse gases: Global warming potentials: Carbon dioxide equivalents: Kyoto greenhouse gases; volcanic eruptions; Ocean–atmosphere heat exchange; Atmospheric composition; Reflectivity, Variations in solar irradiance since 1600, Sinks and sources, Human contribution to climate change: Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations: Land use change; Emissions reduction options: Clean coal; Renewable energy; Nuclear; The advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power; Alternative fuels; Bio-fuel: Biodiesel and Ethanol; compressed and Liquefied Natural Gas and Liquefied Petroleum Gas; Biogas; Methanol; Hydrogen, Sequestration: carbon sequestration; Soil sequestration; Plant sequestration; Geo-sequestration; Ocean sequestration; Mineral sequestration, International action, The Kyoto Protocol, Domestic action .