The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform in 19th Century Europe

The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform in 19th Century Europe

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Stefan Seltz-Axmacher 5/12/2009 Per. 5 Chapter 21 Outline: The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform 1) The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism: a. The Emergence of Nationalism: nationalism was the most powerful European ideology of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. i. Opposition to the Vienna Settlement: Early nationalism opposed the idea that legitimate monarchies rather than ethnicity provide the basis for political unity. Nationalists opposed multinational states like the Austrian and Russian empires and the split up of ethnicities like the Italians and Germans. These ideas were usually supported by ideas of popular sovereignty, since people not leaders determine national character. ii. Creating Nations: Nations were created by writers and schoolteachers who published works in a national language. They also invented a more unified version of the language to put an end to many local dialects. The uniform language in books and schools could overtake the dialects. iii. Meaning of Nationhood: Gathering nationalities into a single state would eliminate petty dynastic states that governed regions and would promote economic and administrative efficiency. Nations determining their own destinies were like individuals exploiting personal talents to determine their own careers. Nations, like biological species, were distinct creations of god. Or there is a place for nations in the divine order of things. iv. Regions of Nationalistic Pressure: The Irish in the UK, Germans who pit Austria and Prussia against each other, Italians against the Austrians, Poles against the Russians, Eastern Europeans against the Austrians and Serbs, Greeks, Albanians, Romanians and Bulgarians against the Ottomans. b. Early-Nineteenth-Century Political Liberalism: Anything that challenged conservative political, social, or religious values. i. Political Goals: Derived from the writers of the Enlightenment, English Example, and the principles of the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Liberals sought to establish a political framework of legal equality, religious toleration, and freedom of the press. 1. General goal was to limit the power if the government against the persons and property of the individual. 2. Legitimacy is derived from the free consent of the governed. 3. Popular basis is elected representative bodies. The state ministers had to be responsible to the representatives instead of the monarch.
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4. Written Constitutions that guarantee these political arrangements. Constitutionalism a. Liberals were usually educated, relatively wealthy people, associated with the professions or commercial life. Often a academics, or people involved in the rapidly expanding commercial and manufacturing segments of the economy. b.
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This note was uploaded on 04/22/2008 for the course ENGL ENG 105-H taught by Professor Gailrosen during the Spring '08 term at Drexel.

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The Conservative Order and the Challenges of Reform in 19th Century Europe

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