Economic Advance and Social Unrest: 1800s in Europe

Economic Advance and Social Unrest: 1800s in Europe -...

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Stefan Seltz-Axmacher 5/13/2009 Per. 5 Chapter 22: Economic Advance and Social Unrest: 1) Toward an Industrial Society: a. Britain’s Industrial Leadership: i. Had advantage because of natural resources, adequate capital, native technological skills, growing food supply, a social structure that allowed considerable mobility, and strong foreign and domestic demand for goods. ii. Factories and machines let producers make higher quality products at lower prices. iii. French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars disrupted continental economic life for two decades. Latin American independence opened the markets of South America. Both United States and Canada demanded British goods. India gave them control of Indian Ocean trade. iv. Worldwide Industry: Textile Industry: raw cotton depended on the labor of American slaves. Finished textiles shipped all over the world along sea lanes protected by the navy. v. By the 1830s Belgium, France, and Germany began using more steam engines, and using coal and coke. vi. Industrialization on the continent was a lot less concentrated. There were some industrial areas, but most was in the countryside. This meant that peasants and urban artisans remained more important politically than factory workers. b. Population and Migration: Europe had a big boom i. Between 1831 and 1851 France went from 32.5 Million to 35.8. Germany from 26.2 to 33.5million. Britain 16.3 to 20.8. ii. More people lived in cities, by 1850s one half of UK in cities, and one quarter of France and Germany. Eastern Europe remained very rural with little industrialization. iii. Population density meant disease took its toile on the population, crime increased; and became a way of life. iv. As landholding was liberalized in Eastern Europe and the Serfs were freed, they became conservative landholders and not innovative. v. From Germany Eastward the pace of industrialization was much slower because of the absence of a fluid market of free labor because it was so hard for emancipated serfs to move about. vi. Famines like the Irish Potato Famine made a half a million starve and millions emigrate. c. Railways: Railroads, canals and better roads meant people could leave the place of their birth more easily than before. Also allowed cheaper and more rapid passage of raw materials and finished products.
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i. The epitome of industrial character: Investment in capital goods rather than consumer goods. Meant there was a shortage of consumer goods at cheap prices. This is why the working class felt it could purchase so little with it’s wages. Railways created a sharply increased demand for iron and steel and for a more skilled labor force. New iron and steel capacity allowed construction of ironclad ships and iron machinery. Industrialization began to grow on itself. 2) The Labor Force: Made up of by those who had steady jobs, and the
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Economic Advance and Social Unrest: 1800s in Europe -...

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