10Nerves - Title: Nerves I. Control Systems in Animals...

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Title: Nerves I. Control Systems in Animals Physiology of animals controlled by two main systems: o Endocrine system (chemical) o Nervous system (electrical) Endocrine System o Hormones and receptors: signaling pathways o Chemical signals act over various time scales o Can be relatively long lasting in effect A. Nervous System Rapid Response: electrical signals Two subdivisions of nervous system: o Central: brain and spinal cord ( CNS) o Peripheral: neurons outside of CNS ( PNS) The nervous system interprets information about your body and the environment and decides whether and how to respond. It is made up of neuron (nerves) and support (glial) cells Central Nervous System (CNS) consists of the brain and spinal cord. It receives and integrates information from the body and directs an appropriate output response. It developed from the neural tube. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) consists of sensory neurons, those that bring information to the brain, and motor neurons, that carry information to the effector location B. The Neuron Neurons are the signal conducting cells of the nervous system 1) Dendrites receive signals from other cells and conduct information toward the cell body. 2) Cell body has the machinery to maintain the cell 3) Axon conducts signal to other nerve cells or effector organs Specialized cell type makes up most of nervous system Distinctive shape: o Cell body with long processes extending away o Dendrites: signals arriving to the neuron o Axon: signals going away from the neuron o Synapse: connect ions to other neurons
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o Neuromuscular junction: connection to muscles Figure 44.3 Synaptic terminals at end of axons have enlarged surface area for the exocytotic release of chemicals Myelin sheath- fatty insulation on axon formed by glial (support) cells. Cells wrap around axon as they grow. Node of Ranvier- segments along axon that are not insulated by
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10Nerves - Title: Nerves I. Control Systems in Animals...

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