Unit 4 Review Su 2015-2 - Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 4 Remember that this review sheet is only a guide and not a complete list of what you should know

Unit 4 Review Su 2015-2 - Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 4...

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Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 4 Remember that this review sheet is only a guide, and not a complete list of what you should know for your exam. Unless otherwise noted, you are responsible for the material given in lecture and in your textbook. When reviewing, a good place to start is the chapter summaries at the end of each chapter. Chapter 18: Blood 1.Describe the basic functions of blood.Blood transports blood from the body to the lungs and then back out into the body, it also regulates body temperature and pH balance, and lastly, it protects the body from blood loss and antigens. 2.Name the components of blood. What are the formed elements?Blood consists of platelets (help blood clot), erythrocytes (gas exchange), leukocytes (help defend the body against invading pathogens), and plasma (transports materials). Formed elements are the erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. 3. Be able to explain how blood helps regulate body temperature. Blood acts as a buffering system in the body through carbonic acid and bicarbonate. There is a constant exchange of fluid between the blood plasma and the interstitial fluid. If there is too much fluid being absorbed in the body to too much fluid leaving the bloodstream, then the blood balances this by using ions and proteins to prevent excess fluid loss in plasma. 4. Name the 4 classes of blood plasma proteins and their functions. a. Albumin: exerts osmotic force to retain fluid within the blood, contributes to blood’s viscosity, and responsible for some fatty acid and hormone transport b. Globulins: Alpha-globulins transport lipids and some metal ions, Beta-globulins transport iron ions and lipid in blood, and gamma- globulins are antibodies that immobilize pathogens c. Fibrinogen: helps blood clot d. Regulatory proteins: consists of enzymes and proteins 5.Describe the fluids associated with blood as described in lecture (extracellular, plasma).Blood contains water, amino acids, sugars, fatty acids, coenzymes, hormones, neurotransmitters, salts, and waste products. Blood plasmaand lymph work with interstitial fluid. Both plasma and interstitial fluid have similar concentrations of nutrients, waste products, and electrolytes. Plasma dissolves in oxygen better than interstitial fluid. Cells take up and use the oxygen from interstitial fluid during energy production. 6. What information does a hematocrit give, and what can affect this? A hematocrit tells the percentage of the volume of all formed elements (erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets) in the blood. A change of altitude, dehydration, or blood doing can elevate a
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hematocrit level. Whereas, people suffering from anemia often have lowered hematocrit.
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