Unit 6 Review Su 2015 - Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 6 Chapter 16 Special Senses 1 Name the different types of special senses a Olfaction sense of smell

Unit 6 Review Su 2015 - Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 6...

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Review for Bio 160 Unit Test 6 Chapter 16: Special Senses 1. Name the different types of special senses. a. Olfaction: sense of smell b. Gustation: sense of taste c. Vision d. Hearing e. Equilibrium: balance 2. Describe the major classification of receptors (exteroceptors, interoceptors, proprioceptors). a. Exteroceptors: found near the surface of the body; provide information about external environment, sensitive to stimuli outside of the body and transmit sensations of hearing, vision, smell, taste, touch, pressure, vibration, temperature, and pain b. Introceptors: found in blood vessels and visceral organs; provide information about internal environment. Occasionally may be felt as pain or pressure, but include chemical changes and temperature changes. c. Proprioceptors: located in muscles, tendons, joints, and inner ear; detect body and limb movements, skeletal muscle contraction and stretch, and activity of our joints 3. Know the difference between tonic and phasic receptors. Tonic receptors are continuous, and monitor steady states in the body, they are also “slow adapting”. Tonic receptors detect pain, body positon, chemicals in blood, and maintain the head’s balance. While phasic receptors detect changes, they accommodate very quickly, reduce stimulation to stimulus and play a major role in signaling changes in a particular sensation. They are “rapidly adapting” and are associated with touch, smell, and pressure. 4. Know the various stimulating agents (nociceptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and baroreceptors), and the general types of tactile receptors. a. Nociceptors: sense pain Somatic: chemical, heat, and mechanical damage to surface or skeletal muscles Visceral: internal body damage within viscera b. Thermorecptors: detect changes in temperature; in skin, hypothalamus c. Mechanoreceptors: sense touch, pressure, stretch, and vibration d. Chemoreceptors: sense chemical and molecular changes in fluids; pH, glucose, etc. e. Baroreceptors: sense changes in pressure, stretch distension; monitors blood pressure Tactile receptors are the most numerous receptors, they contain mechanoreceptors that react to touch, pressure, and vibration stimuli. These receptors are found in the dermis and hypodermis. a. Un-encapsulated: simple, dendritic ends with no connective tissue wrapping
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Free nerve endings Root hair plexuses Tactile (Merkel) discs b. Encapsulated: complex structures wrapped with connective tissue or glial cells End (Krause) bulbs: located primarily in mucous membranes of oral cavity, nasal cavity, vagina, and anal canal; detect light pressure to stimuli Lamellated corpuscles (Bulbous) Ruffini corpuscles Tactile corpuscles 5. Describe the cell types associated with gustatory receptors and taste buds; name the basic tastes and different types of papillae.
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