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Chapt 2 - Chapter 2-Variance main task in psychology...

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Chapter 2--Variance main task in psychology explain variability in some behavioral variable of interest that is, understand differences among people in their behavior (acts, thoughts, feeling, etc.) [if people don’t vary—no point in explaining!] e.g. friendliness – more specifically, helping behavior e.g. hatred – acts of aggression Explaining variability is involved throughout all phases of the research process research questions concern increasing our understanding of behavioral variability Design studies best suited to describe and understand variability in a particular behavior Measures chosen to capture numerically the variability we observe in participants’ behavior Use statistics to analyze variability in our data How to express (or capture) how much variability there is in a set of scores – in our data we have collected? Variance = Statistic used to indicate amount of observed variability in participants’ scores Variance —conceptual understanding How much variation is there in the scores?
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How dispersed, how spread out scores are? Interested in friendliness—say, helping behavior What influences how much people help? Make them more aware of variations in helping behavior Two conditions experimental = awareness control = no manipulation Observe helping behavior & assign each P a score 1 = not at all helpful to 5 = extremely helpful Have set of scores—how do I understand what is going on with them—what I found? Describe/summarize data – compute descriptive statistics Reduce a large number of scores/observations to interpretable numbers (e.g. means, percentages, range, variance) See numerical example below versus inferential statistics [talk about later in semester] Allow us to draw conclusions about whether our findings are ‘real’ and robust (as opposed to being due to chance, random factors that influenced outcome in our study)]
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Helping behavior observed in 2 different Groups experimental (awareness) vs control condition #s indicate the degree to which an Observer rated each participant as helpful 1 = not at all to 5 = extremely helpful C D _____ _____ 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 First step—always: Compute Descriptive Statistics Frequency Table C D _________________________________ ____________________________________ | | Frequency | Percent | |Frequency|Percent| |-----| |-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 1.00 | |3 |25.0 || |1 |8.3 | | ----- | |-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 2.00 | |2 |16.7 || |3 |25.0 | | ----- | |-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 3.00 | |2 |16.7 || |5 |41.7 | | ----- | |-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 4.00 | |3 |25.0 || |2 |16.7 | | ----- | |-------|-------|| |---------|-------|
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| 5.00 | |2 |16.7 || |1 |8.3 | |-----| |-------|-------|| |---------|-------| |Total| |12 |100.0 || |12 |100.0 | Bar Charts Experimental Condition =>awareness of differences in helping behavior C C . 5 00 . 4 00 . 3 00 . 2 00 . 1 00 Frequency . 3 5 . 3 0 . 2 5 . 2 0 . 1 5 . 1 0 . 5 . 0 0 Control Condition =>no manipulation D D . 5 00 . 4 00 . 3 00 . 2 00 . 1 00 Frequency 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
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