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# Chapt 5 - DESCRIBING AND PRESENTING DATA Criteria of a Good...

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DESCRIBING AND PRESENTING DATA Criteria of a Good Description Looking at all of the raw data is too overwhelming, hard to get an overview of what is going on need to summarize and describe the data Three criteria that make data description/summary the most useful Accurate Concise Understandable Frequency distribution Starting point for many data descriptions is the frequency distribution Table/Graph that summarizes raw data by showing the number of scores that fall within each of several categories Simple Grouped easier to grasp info in frequency distributions when graphed histograms (interval or ratio—equal distances are meaningful) bar charts (nominal and ordinal)—separated bars Horizontal—x-axis—always presents scores/class intervals

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Vertical—y-axis—always presents frequencies—number of scores in each class interval Helping behavior observed in 2 different Groups experimental (awareness) vs control condition #s indicate the degree to which an Observer rated each participant as helpful 1 = not at all to 5 = extremely helpful C D 1.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 5.00 4.00 5.00 5.00 First step—-always check out frequencies Frequency Table C D | |Frequency|Percent| |Frequency|Percent| |-----|||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 1.00 |||||3 |25.0 || |1 |8.3 | | ----- |||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 2.00 |||||2 |16.7 || |3 |25.0 | | ----- |||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 3.00 |||||2 |16.7 || |5 |41.7 | | ----- |||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------| | 4.00 |||||3 |25.0 || |2 |16.7 | | ----- |||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------|
| 5.00 |||||2 |16.7 || |1 |8.3 | |-----|||||-------|-------|| |---------|-------| |Total|||||12 |100.0 || |12 |100.0 | Bar Charts Experimental Condition =>awareness of differences in helping behavior manipulation C C 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Frequency 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 .5 0.0 Control Condition =>no manipulation

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D D 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 Frequency 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Measures of Central Tendency frequencies convey important info about participants’ responses also want numbers that summarize an entire group of participants Measures of central tendency convey info about distribution by providing info about the average or most typical scores Three measures of CT most typically used—all tell us something slightly different about the data Mean—average Sum scores for all cases and then divide by number of cases does not always accurately represent the average or typical case, look at the median and mode
Median Middle score of distribution—rank order scores, median is the one ranked in the middle Odd number, clear; even, pick number in middle Advantage over mean—less affected by extreme scores— outliers Mode Most frequent score Sometimes no mode or can be multiple modes Second step— —compute Measures of Central Tendency -------------------------------------- | Statistics |C |D | |-------------|-------|-------|------| |N |Valid |12 |12 | |-------------|-------|-------|------| | Mean |2.9167 |2.9167 | |-------------|-------|-------|------| | Median |3.0000 |3.0000| |-------------|-------|-------|------| |Mode |1.00(a)|3.00 | |-------------|-------|-------|------| |Std. Deviation |1.5050 |1.0836| |-------------|-------|-------|------| | Variance |2.2652 |1.1742 |

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|-------------|-------|-------|------| | Range |4.00 |4.00 | |-------------|-------|-------|------| a Multiple modes exist. smallest value shown Measures of Variability in addition to knowing about typical or average score in data distribution, it is very helpful to know how much the scores in distribution vary Variability of a distribution tells us how typical the mean is of the set of scores as a whole If small, mean very representative If large, mean isn’t
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