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bio final study guide

bio final study guide - Bio study guide-test 3 Arteries...

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Bio study guide-test 3 Arteries- blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart Veins- blood vessels that carry blood to the heart Capillaries- smallest vessels, connect arterioles and venules, interchange of oxygen and co2 between blood and tissue cells, compose of single layer of cells Blood plasma- the liquid component of blood in which cells are suspended, 55% of blood volune Serum- plasma in which clotting factors have been removed, serum albumin is most abundant + plasma protein Plasma components- 92% water, 8% plasma proteins such as serum albunmin, immunoglobulins, hormones, co2, etc Lymph- originates as blood plasma that leaks from capillaries, becomes intestinal fluid. Mixes w/ interstitial fluid before reabsorption. Fluid is processed by lymph nodes. Called lymph while in the nodes. Lymph nodes- filter lymph w/ lymphocytes in order to collect and destroy bacteria 4- chambered heart- right atrium/ ventricle , left atrium/ ventricle Atherosclerosis- clogging, narrowing, and hardening of larger arteries and medium blood vessels. Leads to stroke, heart attack, eye and kidney problems Pulmonary circulation-portion of cardiovascular system which carries oxygen-depleted blood away from heart to lungs, and then back to heart systematic circulation-carries oxygenated blood away from heart to body and returns deoxygenated blood the endocrine system- chemical regulation of particular processes hormones- chemical substances released into the bloodstream which cases an effect somewhere in the body ex- estrogen, insulin master gland- the pituitary gland the hypothalmo-pituitary complex “master gland” actions 1. hypothalamus secretes “releasing factor” 2. anterior pituitary responds w/ a tropic hormone
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3. tropic hormone stimulates a second endocrine gland.. a) second hormone produces useful function b) increased levels of 2 nd hormone inhibit the “releasing factor” controlled by negative feedback tropic hormones- anterior pituitary secreted hormones that regulate activity of various endocrine glands. Ex. THS (thyroid stimulating hormone) FHS(follicle stimulating hormone steroid hormones-any hormone affecting development and growth of sex organs protein hormones- pituitary functions- Anterior pituitary -master gland functions -individual hormones -somatotrophins (growth hormone), prolactin (milk) Posterior pituitary -anti diuretic hormone (ADH) - oxytocin Uterine contractions, milk production, mother love? Respiration- the process by which multicellular organisms capture and excrete the gaseous fuel and waste of the cellular respiration Gas exchange- for unicellular organisms it takes place at cell membrane. For mammals, occurs in aveoli – O2 sent to blood, CO2 taken out of blood. “all tubes lead to alveoli” Pneumonia- a viral or bacterial infection that leads to a buildup of fluid in the brain Emphysema- breakdown of bronchioles and alveoli leads to loss of surface area for gas exchange Cancer- abnormal growth of cells Non-specific immunity-immune system will recognize any invader that is not “self”
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bio final study guide - Bio study guide-test 3 Arteries...

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