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His 584 American Medical History Test 1

His 584 American Medical History Test 1 - CONTENTS of...

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-1 CONTENTS of Readings thus far 3 - Medicine in New England : Eric H Christianson - says classifying disease during the 17 th and 18 th centuries difficult for historian because diagnosis were often incorrect. In England the 3 primary medical sources came from apothecaries, physicians, and surgeons. - differences from ancient Greek and Roman practices were not very much. * Medical theory continued to be derived from Humoralism, a theme created by Galen in the 2 nd century A.D. (yellow bile, blood, phlegm, and black bile) and their imbalances. *During 17 th Century Dr. Thomas Sydenham made Hippocratic medicine more of a common practice. (from Hippocrates - diseases were real entities caused by specific causes.) -- New England claimed roughly 25% of the U.S. Population in 1790 * Until mid 18 th Century there was no objection to using the term “Doctor” freely. - The education level of doctors in N.E. were very diverse ranging from extensive training to barely anything. * New England’s 1 st medical school was Harvard Medical school founded in 1636 - by 18 th century it was common practice for collegiate preparation. - Hospitals didn’t spring up in N.E until the 19 th century because.. 1. N.E was relatively rural - needed big cities. 2. Most immigrants came from rural England and weren’t used to hospitals. 3. The apprenticeship program encouraged in house treatment. * typically the sick were taken care of by themselves, family, or neighbors or local people with knowledge of medicine. - Doctors typically practiced Hippocratic medicine. 4 - Martha Moore Ballard and the Medical Challenge to Midwifery: Laurel Thatcher Ulrich - midwives were the child bearers of the 18 th century. > midwives pushed out of practice in 19 th century by doctors promoting science but they argue that this takes away from the natural process of birth and turns it into a treatment that can actually damage the mother with forceps and such. * midwives were often better prepared for birthing than doctors. - Ballard by no other indication only had a primary education. She not only birthed but also tended to the sick. Her diary suggests that midwives and physicians relationship was actually cooperative which is suggested by her attendance to other doctor’s autopsies. 5 - From Specificity to Universalism in Medical Therapeutics Transformation in the
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19 th Century United States : John Harley Warner - Through the mid 19 th century therapeutics were governed by the principle of specificity. During the final third of the century it turned more toward universal therapeutics. * Early and mid 19 th century they viewed disease as essentially systematic imbalance. Treatments meant to achieve the natural balance again. They prescribed to heroic treatments in most instances - purging - blood letting - calomel.
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His 584 American Medical History Test 1 - CONTENTS of...

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