Grade 11 Biology Review - DiversityofLife Taxonomy Phylogeny Biodiversity Biodiversityb

Grade 11 Biology Review - DiversityofLife Taxonomy...

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Unformatted text preview: Diversity of Life Taxonomy​ ­ is a method of classifying species by characteristics of the species. Phylogeny­ ​ Is the study of evolutionary relatedness between and among species. Biodiversity​ ­ the number and variety of species and ecosystem on earth. Importance of Biodiversity ● Biodiversity boosts ecosystem productivity. ● Animals depend on each other to live (ie. carnivores depend on smaller animals for a source of food). ● The healthier the ecosystem is, the more likely it can come back and recover from disasters. Threats to Biodiversity H­​ Habitat loss I­ ​ Invasive species P­ ​ Population (Human) P­ ​ Pollution O­ ​ Overexploitation (taking too much from the environment) 8 Taxa 1. Domain 2. Kingdom 3. Phylum 4. Class 5. Order 6. Family 7. Genus 8. Species Binomial Nomenclature ● Binomial nomenclature is the formal naming system for living things that all scientists use. ● The system uses 2 words to describe it. ● It gives every species a two­part scientific name. ● Genus and Species are used in the naming. Traditional Method of Classification vs The Phylogenetic System for Classification ● Phylogenetic system​ uses a phylogenetic tree system to classify species starting at the roots with the oldest known species, while the ​ traditional taxonomic method ​ of classification uses similar characteristics of the species for classification. 3 Domains of Life ● The 3 Domains are the highest taxonomic level. ● Bacteria, Archaea, eukaryota. ● Carl Woese in 1996 discovered this. ● The 6 kingdoms and 3 domain system is based on phylogenetic relationships. 6 Kingdoms 1. Eubacteria 2. Archaea 3. Protista 4. Fungi 5. Plants 6. Animals Prokaryote textbook definition:​ a single celled organism that does not contain membrane bound organelles. ● No nucleus ● single chromosome ● few mitochondria ● cell walls ● unicellular ● no endoplasmic reticulum or golgi cells Similarities ● ● ● ● unicellular have ribosomes have cell membrane have cytoplasm Eukaryotic textbook definition:​ any organism whose cells contain organelle; some eukaryotic organisms are single celled, while others are multicellular. ● have nucleus ● more than 1 chromosome ● lots of mitochondria ● cell walls only in plants and fungi ● possibly multicellular ● have endoplasmic reticulum and golgi Replication Cycle of a Virus ● ● ● There are 2 cycles for the replication of a virus. The Lytic Cycle and Lysogenic Cycle. ○ Lytic Cycle 1. The phage attaches to host cell and injects DNA. 2. Phage DNA circularized and enters the lytic cycle. 3. The New phage DNA and proteins are synthesized and assembled into Virions. 4. Cell lyses, releasing the phage virions. 5. Then the Phage DNA repeats the process. ○ Lysogenic Cycle 1. Phage attaches to host cell and injects DNA. 2. Phage DNA enters the Lysogenic Cycle. 3. Phage Dna integrates within the bacterial chromosome by recombination becoming a prophage. 4. Lysogenic bacterium reproduces normally. 5. (Many cell divisions). 6. Occasionally the prophage may excise from the bacterial chromosome by another recombination event, initiating a lytic cycle. The difference between the lytic and lysogenic cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. While in the lysogenic cycle phage DNA integrates within the bacterial chromosomes. Replication of Bacteria ● Bacteria reproduce asexually using ​ Binary Fission. ○ Binary Fission is ​ when the bacteria cell splits into 2 cells. ● Also by exchanging some one their DNA through a ​ conjunction ​ tube to another bacterium. Life Cycle of Plants­ “Alternation of Generation” ● ● ● ● ● Life cycle of plants include a gametophyte generation(Haploid/N phase) and a sporophyte generation(diploid/2N). The 2 generations alternate each giving a rise to the other. Gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis and sporophytes produce spores by meiosis. Spores develop directly into organisms. Gametes(eggs and sperm) unite during fertilization to form a zygote which gives rise to an organism. Examples Algae ● Cells of the sporophyte generation have 26 chromosomes. ● Gametophyte cells contain only 13 chromosomes. ● The sporophyte produces spores that settle on the rock surfaces to grow into male and female gametophytes. These turn mature and release gametes into the water. ● In fertilization, two gametes fuse and grow into a sporophyte. Gymnosperm ● Trees are sporophytes. ● Most gymnosperm species produce both pollen cones and ovulate(female) cones. ● Male cones produce pollen grains (male gametophytes). ● Female cones contain scales each with 2 ovules. ● Wind blown pollen falls on the female cone and is drawn into the ovule. ● Pollen grain germinates in the ovule and grows a pollen tube that seeks out the female gametophyte and fertilizes the egg cell within. Algae Mosses Ferns Gymnosperms Angiosperms Dominant Generation Gametophyte Gametophyte Sporophyte Sporophyte Sporophyte Alternate Generation Sporophyte Sporophyte Gametophyte Gametophyte Gametophyte Movement of Sperm Needs water(done in water) Needs water Needs water none wind/ insects Gametophyte reliance on sporophyte None None none Relies on Tree Relies on for protection/ tree for shelter protection/ shelter Sporophyte reliance on gametophyte none yes yes (nourishment) none none ecological niche with respect to reproduction water needed moist damp areas shaded, damp/moist areas Colder climates colder climates, grow everywhere GENETICS Cell Division 1. Replace 2. Reproduce 3. Repai Mitosis ● Mitosis is a 1 staged cell division, it produces 2 daughter cells that are identical to the parent cell. ● It plays an important part in embryo development, is important in our bodies as we grow. ● It produces new cells and replaces old cells. ● It is a single division that results in the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. 1. Prophase ➢ Nuclear membrane dissolves ➢ Chromosomes attach to their copy by a centromere ➢ Centrioles appear and move to the poles. 2. Metaphase ➢ Chromosomes align in the center of the cell. 3. Anaphase ➢ Spindle fibers contract pulling the chromatids to polar ends of the cell. 4. Telophase ➢ A nuclear membrane reforms around each of the nuclei and cytoplasm. ➢ Mitosis is completed and there are 2 identical cells with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell. ...
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