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Stat exam 1

# Stat exam 1 - Stat exam 1 INTRO TO STAT Sample A set of...

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Stat exam 1 INTRO TO STAT Sample - A set of individuals selected from a population, usually intended to represent the population in a research study. Population - The set of all the individuals of interest in a particular study. Parameter - A value, usually a numerical value, that describes a population. A parameter may be obtained from a single measurement, or it may be derived from a set of measurements from the population. Descriptive statistics - statistical procedures used to summarize, organize and simplify data. Inferential statistics - Consist of techniques that allow us to study samples and then make generalizations about the populations from which they were selected. Independent variable - the variable that is manipulated by the researcher. In behavioral research, the independent variable usually consists of the two (or more) treatment conditions to which subjects are exposed. The independent variable consists of the antecedent conditions that were manipulated prior to observing the dependent variable. The dependent variable- the one that is observed in order to assess the effect of the treatment. Correlational method - Two variables are observed to determine whether there is a relationship between them. Experimental method - One variable is manipulated while another variable is observed and measured. To establish a cause and effect relationship between the two variables, an experiment attempts to control all other variable to prevent them from influencing the results. Quasi - independent variable- Many research studies involve comparing groups that were not created by manipulating an independent variable. Instead, the groups are usually determined by a participant variable (such as male verses female) or a time variable (such as before treatment vs after treatment). In these non experimental studies, the variable that determines the groups is called a quasi independent variable. Discrete variable - Consists of separate, indivisible categories. No values can exist between two neighboring categories. Continuous variable- There are an infinite number of possible values that fall between any two observed values. A continuous variable is divisible into an infinite number of fractional parts. 4 major scales of measurement : nominal scale- consists of a set of categories that have different names. Measurements on a nominal scale label and categorize observations, but do not make any quantitative distinctions between observations. Ordinal scale - consists of a set of categories that are organized in an ordered sequence. Measurements on an ordinal scale rank observations in terms of size or magnitude. Interval scale - Consists of ordered categories that are all intervals of exactly the same size. With an interval scale, equal

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