Psychology Exam Three Study Guide

Psychology Exam Three Study Guide - Psychology Exam Three...

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Psychology Exam Three Study Guide Neonate : newborn child -Vernix: a white, greasy covering for protection before birth -Lanugo: soft fuzz over a baby’s entire body for protection Reflexes : Unlearned, involuntary responses that occur automatically in the presence of certain stimuli - Rooting Reflex : causes babies to turn their heads towards things that touch their cheeks (mother’s nipple or a bottle) - Sucking Reflex : babies automatically suck at things that touch their lips - Gag Reflex : causes babies to clear their throat Habituation: The decrease in the response to a stimulus that occurs after repeated presentations of the same stimulus -The is the way psychologists can tell when a stimulus is detected by an infant Attachment: The positive emotional bond that develops between a child and a particular individual (usually the primary caregiver): the most important form of social development that occurs during infancy Imprinting: Attachment to the first moving object that is observed Measuring Attachment: Ainsworth’s “Strange Situation” experiments - Secure Attachment : Babies use mother as a Home Base: distressed when the mother leaves and seeks comfort when they return -Babies who are securely attached show better long-term social adjustment -Avoidant: Do not cry when the parent leaves, and avoid parent when they return- show ambivalence towards mother -Ambivalent: Generally anxious, “checks in” with parent a lot: very distressed when caregiver leaves, but avoid them when parent returns -Disorganized-Disoriented: Inconsistent, often contradictory behavior Harlow’s Surrogate Mother Experience -Monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable cloth mother, even while feeling from the nourishing wire monkey -Monkeys raised by artificial mothers were terror stricken when placed in strange situations without them Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parents : rigid and punitive, value unquestioning obedience from their children -Kids are unfriendly, unsociable, and relatively withdrawn Permissive Parents : give their children relaxed or inconsistent direction and, although warm, require little of them -Kids show immaturity, moodiness, dependence, and low self-control
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Authoritative: set firm, clear limits, reason with their children, and explain things to them -Kids have high social skills, are likeable, self reliant, independent, cooperative Uninvolved Parents : show little interest in their children and are emotionally detached -Kids feel unloved and emotionally detached, cognitive development impeded Temperament: A basic, innate disposition in a person Resilience: the ability to overcome circumstances that place them at high risk for psychological or even physical harm Basic Trust (Erikson): A sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy -Said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experience with responsive caregivers Self Concept: A sense of ones own value and worth Psychosocial Development: Involves changes in our interactions and understanding of
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Psychology Exam Three Study Guide - Psychology Exam Three...

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